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Clegg M.E.,Oxford Brookes University | Golsorkhi M.,Oxford Brookes University | Henry C.J.,Oxford Brookes University | Henry C.J.,Brenner Center for Molecular Medicine
European Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

Background and purpose: Capsaicin, the active ingredient of chilli, and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) have been shown to increase diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), improve satiety and decrease energy intake. Combinations of thermogenic ingredients have previously been investigated such as mustard and chilli, or capsaicin and green tea with positive effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of chilli and MCT feeding on DIT and satiety in healthy volunteers. Methods: Seven healthy volunteers were tested on four occasions following an overnight fast. Volunteers were fed a breakfast containing chilli and MCT oil, chilli and sunflower oil, bell pepper and sunflower oil or bell pepper and MCT oil. Satiety and gastrointestinal comfort were measured using visual analogue scales (VAS) and category scales. Baseline energy expenditure, and DIT and fat oxidation were measured for 6 h using indirect calorimetry. Results: There were significant differences in DIT between the meals (P = 0.003) which increased from 7.0% for pepper-sunflower oil to 10.7% for chilli-MCT oil. The predominant differences existed between the chilli-MCT oil and chilli-sunflower oil (P = 0.013), between chilli-MCT oil and pepper-sunflower oil (P = 0.007) and between pepper-sunflower oil and pepper-MCT oil (P = 0.004). There was a significant difference in fat oxidation between the pepper-sunflower oil and pepper-MCT oil (P = 0.032). There were no differences in any VAS satiety parameters or gastrointestinal comfort ratings. Conclusion: Adding chilli and MCT to meals increases DIT by over 50% which over time may cumulate to help induce weight loss and prevent weight gain or regain. © Springer-Verlag 2012. Source


Dalan R.,Tan Tock Seng Hospital | Dalan R.,National University of Singapore | Liew H.,Tan Tock Seng Hospital | Tan W.K.A.,Tan Tock Seng Hospital | And 4 more authors.
IJC Metabolic and Endocrine | Year: 2014

Introduction and background: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and its surrogate indicators such as endothelial dysfunction. It is an independent predictor of CVDs and all-cause mortality. Methods: We review the updated literature surrounding vitamin D and the endothelium spanning molecular, translational and clinical studies including randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We review the possible actions of vitamin D on the quiescent and activated endothelium including lessons from animal models. We review the recent literature for association of Vitamin D deficiency with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular complications, and for clinical trials done to look at the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the endothelium and cardiovascular outcome. Results and conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases. Vitamin D stabilizes the quiescent endothelium, modulates certain stages of endothelial activation, and is involved in the repair of the damaged endothelium in vitro and in vivo. Twelve recent cross sectional studies, including 2086 subjects of varying ethnic groups, show an association between endothelial dysfunction and vitamin D deficiency. Yet 10 recent RCTs of vitamin D supplementation involving 824 subjects have failed to show significant improvements in endothelial function in the short term. So far, RCTs have not been able to confirm or refute the benefit of vitamin D supplementation on vascular mortality. Longer term randomized controlled trials using doses of vitamin D to optimize serum 25(OH)D concentrations to 20.0-40.0. ng/mL (50.0-100.0. nmol/L) or using vitamin D analogues with no calciotropic effects are needed to assess endothelial function and cardiovascular outcomes. © 2014. Source


Lakshmipriya N.,International Diabetes Federation | Gayathri R.,International Diabetes Federation | Praseena K.,International Diabetes Federation | Vijayalakshmi P.,International Diabetes Federation | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition | Year: 2013

There is little data on the type of vegetable oil used and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in Asian Indians. Food frequency questionnaire was used to document the type of cooking oil in 1875 adults in Chennai city. MS was assessed by new harmonizing criteria. The prevalence of MS was higher among sunflower oil users (30.7%) than palmolein (23.2%) and traditional oil (17.1%, p < 0.001) users. The higher prevalence of MS in sunflower oil group persisted even when stratified according to body mass index, except in obese groups. The risk of MS was further compounded by quantity of refined cereals consumed. Higher LA%E and linoleic acid/alpha-linolenic acid ratio in sunflower oil probably contributes to increased risk of MS. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd. Source


Clegg M.E.,Oxford Brookes University | Pratt M.,Oxford Brookes University | Markey O.,University of Limerick | Shafat A.,University of Limerick | And 3 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2012

In vitro, the addition of lipids to a carbohydrate food has been found to increase the digestibility of starch. In contrast, in vivo studies have shown that the addition of fat to a food can reduce the glycaemic response (GR). The aim of this study was to assess if delayed gastric emptying (GE) causes reduced GR with the addition of lipids to a carbohydrate food and if a relationship between GR and in vitro digestion of starch exists for high fat foods. Ten healthy volunteers were tested on five occasions after consuming pancakes containing 50g of available carbohydrate and 202kcal of sunflower oil, olive oil, butter, medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil or a control containing no oil. GR was measured using fingerpick blood samples, satiety using visual analogue scales and GE using the 13C octanoic acid breath test. There was a significant difference in GR between the different pancake breakfasts (p=0.05). The highest GR was observed following the control pancakes and the lowest following the olive oil pancakes. There were significant differences in GE half time, lag phase and ascension time (p<0.05) between the different pancakes with the control pancakes having the shortest GE time and the MCT pancakes the longest. There was a significant difference in satiety parameters fullness (p=0.003) and prospective consumption (p=0.050), with satiety being lowest following the control pancakes. There was a significant inverse correlation between the GR and all satiety parameters. A significant inverse correlation (p=0.009) was also observed between the digestibility of starch in vitro and GR in vivo. The paper indicates that the digestibility of starch in vitro does not predict the GR for high fat containing foods. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Clegg M.E.,Oxford Brookes University | Ranawana V.,Oxford Brookes University | Ranawana V.,Brenner Center for Molecular Medicine | Shafat A.,National University of Ireland | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013

Background/Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated the satiating properties of soups compared with solids; however, the mechanisms controlling soup-induced satiety are unknown. This study aimed to understand the physiological mechanisms causing soup to be more satiating. Subjects/Methods: A total of 12 volunteers were tested on three occasions after a solid meal, chunky soup or smooth soup test meal for gastric emptying (GE) using the sodium [1-13 C] acetate breath test, satiety using visual analog scales (VAS) and glycaemic response (GR) using finger prick blood samples. Results: There was a significant difference in GE half-time (P=0.022) and GE ascension time (P=0.018), with the longest GE times for the smooth soup and the shortest for the solid meal. The GR area under the curve was significantly different between meals (P=0.040). The smooth soup had the greatest GR (87.0±49.5 mmol/l/min), followed by the chunky soup (65.4±48.0 mmol/l/min), with the solid meal having the lowest GR (61.6±36.8 mmol/l/min). Volunteers were fuller after the smooth soup compared with solid meal (P=0.034). Conclusions: The smooth soup induced greater fullness compared with the solid meal because of a combination of delayed GE leading to feelings of gastric distension and rapid accessibility of nutrients causing a greater glycaemic response. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

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