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Bremer, Germany

Ludewig H.,Bremer Energie Institute | Haase B.,Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences | Fritsching U.,University of Bremen
Chemical Engineering and Technology

Efficient control and minimization of emissions from technical processes is of major concern in industrial development and process operation. The technical process in the focus of the present contribution is the nitriding process of metallic specimen. The ammonia content in nitriding process flue gases reaches up to 618g·m-3 (80 vol.-%) and needs to be reduced to less than 30mg·m-3 (40 ppm) to fulfill present regulations. Exhaust gases from nitriding processes today are burnt in flares without emission control where fuels need to be added that produce additional exhaust gas components. The objective of this investigation is to develop an alternative gas cleaning route for nitriding processes based on catalytic dissociation of ammonia. The decomposition was studied for different catalysts at varying process conditions. With these results a dissociation pilot plant was successfully tested in a technical-scale nitriding process. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Brandstatt C.,Bremer Energie Institute | Friedrichsen N.,Jacobs University Bremen | Meyer R.,Jacobs University Bremen | Palovic M.,Jacobs University Bremen
9th International Conference on the European Energy Market, EEM 12

Smart grids are described as a tool to pursue a diverse set of political and environmental energy goals. Visions of smart grid implementation differ around the world, and roles in smart grids are not yet clearly defined and assigned. This paper systematically explores smart grid visions and pilot projects in selected countries representing different electricity system types: centralized versus decentralized and full versus partial liberalization. We find that traditional system structure and problems shape smart grid models. The assignment of smart grid aspects to monopolistic and competitive sections and possibilities for bundling of functions are not uniform. Smart meters can be assigned to network companies or suppliers. These in turn can be integrated or unbundled. The organization of smart grids and the intertwined appearance of functions that are possibly competitive and those that are monopolistic raise further questions for regulation. © 2012 IEEE. Source

Smith Stegen K.,Jacobs University Bremen | Smith Stegen K.,Bremer Energie Institute
Energy Policy

As the likelihood increases that Russia will dominate the European Union's (EU) energy supply, questions have emerged as to whether Russia would use the energy weapon to influence EU member policies and extract political concessions. Countervailing voices argue that Russia would be restricted by interdependence and market forces. As of yet, no one has analyzed the assumptions underlying the energy weapon thesis. Moreover, many scholars examining EU-Russian energy relations rely on non-Russian data. This article seeks to fill several informational and theoretical gaps by including Russian sources and first-hand data and by systematically analyzing the conditions that must obtain before an energy supplier can successfully convert its energy resources into political power. The resulting model can be utilized to analyze the capacity of a supplier to use the energy weapon-whether it be Russia, Iran, Venezuela or any other energy heavyweight-and to assess whether the deployment was successful. Five purported cases of Russian manipulation are analyzed in this article and the findings indicate that, more often than not, Russia failed to achieve political concessions. Looking to the future, the plausibility of Russia using the energy weapon to exploit Europe's dependence, particularly on gas, is also examined. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Brandstatt C.,Bremer Energie Institute | Friedrichsen N.,Bremer Energie Institute
IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe

Integrating electric vehicles (EVs) into future smart power systems is challenge and opportunity in one. Achieving system optimization, renewables integration and quick diffusion requires coordination of EVs with the power system. This paper analyzes price differentiation as a means to incentivize smart EV operation. For smart EV operation time, location and volume are important dimensions of price incentives. A diverse portfolio of tariffs caters to different business models and actors. Ideally this induces a win-win situation with benefits for both users and system operation. However, the quality and effectiveness of price incentives and thus the success of coordination depends on conditions such as price level, consumer behavior and regulation. © 2012 IEEE. Source

Brandstatt C.,Bremer Energie Institute | Brunekreeft G.,Bremer Energie Institute | Brunekreeft G.,Jacobs University Bremen | Friedrichsen N.,Bremer Energie Institute | Friedrichsen N.,Jacobs University Bremen
IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting

Increasing shares of renewable generation in distribution networks drive the debate on locationally differentiated network charging. We investigate the potential of individual contracts to implement locational signals within the existing framework as an alternative to a complete change of the current tariff methodology. The analysis starts from the framework of Germany's electricity supply as of today and presents different perspective on the option of smart contracts to implement locational signals in distribution networks. © 2011 IEEE. Source

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