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Betancourt A.M.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Wang J.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Jenkins S.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Mobley J.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

Through our diet, weare exposed to numerous natural andman-made chemicals, including polyphenols with hormone-like properties. The most abundant hormonally active polyphenols are characterized as weak estrogens. These chemicals are hypothesized to interfere with signaling pathways involved in important diseases such as breast cancer, which in most cases is initially estrogen dependent. Two such chemicals are bisphenol A (BPA), a plasticizer, and genistein, a component of soy. In spite of both possessing estrogenic properties, BPA and genistein yield different health outcomes. The exposure of rats during the prepubertal period to BPA increases the susceptibility of adult animals formammary cancer development, whereas genistein decreases this susceptibility in a chemically induced model. Because both BPA and genistein possess estrogenic properties, it is certainly plausible that additional mechanisms are affected by these chemicals. Hence, it was our goal to investigate at the protein level how exposure to these 2 chemicals can contribute tomammary cancer causation as opposed to cancer chemoprevention. Using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by MS analysis, we identified differentially regulated proteins from the mammary glands of rats prepubertally exposed to BPA and genistein. Following protein identification, we used immunoblotting techniques to validate the identity and regulation of these proteins and to identify downstream signaling proteins. Our studies highlight the importance of proteomics technology in elucidating signaling pathways altered by exposure to hormonally active chemicals and its potential value in identifying biomarkers for mammary cancer. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition.

Betancourt A.M.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Mobley J.A.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Russo J.,Breast Cancer Research Laboratory | Lamartiniere C.A.,University of Alabama at Birmingham
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2010

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant with established endocrine disruptor properties. The objective of our study was to determine the effects of prenatal exposure to BPA on the rat mammary gland proteome in postnatal rats as a first step toward the investigation of translational biomarkers of susceptibility in the human population. Pregnant rats were treated orally with 0, 25 or 250 μg BPA/kg body weight from days 10 to 21 post-conception. Female offspring were euthanized at 21 and 50 days, and mammary glands were collected. Proteomic analysis was conducted using 2-DE, followed by a combination of MALDI-TOF-TOF and LC-MS/MS, which led to the identification of 21 differentially abundant proteins including vimentin, SPARC and 14-3-3. Western blot analysis of key downstream signaling proteins demonstrated increased phospho-AKT, c-Raf, phospho-ERKs-1 and 2, but decreased TGF-β in mammary glands of 50 day old rats exposed prenatally to BPA. Our studies indicate for the first time that key proteins involved in signaling pathways such as cellular proliferation are regulated at the protein level by BPA. This data is expected to aid in the understanding of how BPA may be influencing the susceptibility of the mammary gland to cancer transformation. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Signori C.,Pennsylvania State University | El-Bayoumy K.,Pennsylvania State University | Russo J.,Breast Cancer Research Laboratory | Thompson H.J.,Colorado State University | And 3 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2011

Despite the perception that omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) protect against breast cancer, epidemiologic studies have yielded inconsistent results. Although preclinical data have been, in general, more supportive of a protective effect of n-3 FA on breast cancer, inconsistencies still remain, which preclude definite conclusions or in-depth mechanistic investigations despite 30 years of research in this area. In this review, we discuss key variables that may account for inconsistencies of results across preclinical studies and provide recommendations for future experiments testing the chemopreventive effect of n-3 FAs in breast cancer, as part of a multiagent approach under rigorously controlled conditions. ©2011 AACR.

Eltoum I.A.,Comprehensive Cancer Center | Desmond R.A.,Comprehensive Cancer Center | Desmond R.A.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Russo J.,Breast Cancer Research Laboratory | Lamartiniere C.A.,Comprehensive Cancer Center
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2010

Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous environmental chemical with reported endocrine-disrupting properties.Objective: Our goal in this study was to determine whether prenatal exposure to BPA predisposes the adult rat mammary gland to carcinogenesis. Methods: Pregnant rats were treated orally with 0, 25, or 250 μg BPA/kg body weight (BW) from gestation day (GD) 10 to GD21. For tumorigenesis experiments, prenatally exposed female offspring received a single gavage of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA; 30 mg/kg BW) on postnatal day (PND) 50, or PND100.Results: Prenatal exposure of the dam to 250 μg BPA/kg BW combined with a single exposure of female offspring to DMBA on PND100, but not on PND50, significantly increased tumor incidence while decreasing tumor latency compared with the control group. Prenatal exposure of the dam to 250 μg BPA/kg BW, in the absence of DMBA to the female offspring, increased cell proliferation and elicited differential effects at the protein level at PND100 compared with PND50. Differentially regulated proteins in the mammary gland included estrogen receptor-α, progesterone receptor-A, Bcl-2, steroid receptor coactivators, epidermal growth factor receptor, phospho-insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, and phospho-Raf.Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that oral prenatal exposure to BPA increases mammary cancer susceptibility in offspring and shifts the window of susceptibility for DMBA-induced tumorigenesis in the rat mammary gland from PND50 to PND100. These changes are accompanied by differential effects of prenatal BPA exposure on the expression of key proteins involved in cell proliferation.

Fernandez S.V.,Breast Cancer Research Laboratory | Huang Y.,University of Chicago | Snider K.E.,Breast Cancer Research Laboratory | Zhou Y.,Fox Chase Cancer Center | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Oncology | Year: 2012

It has been suggested that xenoestrogens, a group of agents termed endocrine disruptors, may contribute to the development of hormone-dependent cancers, such as breast and endometrial cancers. We previously demonstrated that the xenoestrogen, bisphenol A (BPA), was able to induce the transformation in vitro of human breast epithelial cells. The normal-like human breast epithelial cell line, MCF-10F, formed tubules in collagen (3-D cultures), although after treatment with BPA (10 -5 M and 10 -6 M BPA) the cells produced less tubules (73% and 80%, respectively) and some spherical masses (27% and 20%, respectively). In the present study, expression and DNA methylation analyses were performed in these cells after exposure to BPA. These cells showed an increased expression of BRCA1, BRCA2, BARD1, CtIP, RAD51 and BRCC3, all of which are genes involved in DNA repair, as well as the downregulation of PDCD5 and BCL2L11 (BIM), both of which are involved in apoptosis. Furthermore, DNA methylation analysis showed that the BPA exposure induced the hypermethylation of BCL2L11, PARD6G, FOXP1 and SFRS11, as well as the hypomethylation of NUP98 and CtIP (RBBP8). Our results indicate that normal human breast epithelial cells exposed to BPA have increased expressions of genes involved in DNA repair in order to overcome the DNA damage induced by this chemical. These results suggest that the breast tissue of women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations could be more susceptible to the effects of BPA.

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