Breast Cancer Biology Group


Breast Cancer Biology Group

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Maire V.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Maire V.,Breast Cancer Biology Group | Nemati F.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Nemati F.,Laboratory of Preclinical Investigation | And 40 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2013

Breast cancers are composed of molecularly distinct subtypes with different clinical outcomes and responses to therapy. To discover potential therapeutic targets for the poor prognosis-associated triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), gene expression profiling was carried out on a cohort of 130 breast cancer samples. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) was found to be significantly overexpressed in TNBC compared with the other breast cancer subtypes. High PLK1 expression was confirmed by reverse phase protein and tissue microarrays. In triple-negative cell lines, RNAi-mediated PLK1 depletion or inhibition of PLK1 activity with a small molecule (BI-2536) induced an increase in phosphorylated H2AX, G 2-M arrest, and apoptosis. A soft-agar colony assay showed that PLK1 silencing impaired clonogenic potential of TNBC cell lines. When cells were grown in extracellular matrix gels (Matrigel), and exposed to BI-2536, apoptosis was observed specifically in TNBC cancerous cells, and not in a normal cell line. When administrated as a single agent, the PLK1 inhibitor significantly impaired tumor growth in vivo in two xenografts models established from biopsies of patients with TNBC. Most importantly, the administration of BI-2536, in combination with doxorubicin + cyclophosphamide chemotherapy, led to a faster complete response compared with the chemotherapy treatment alone and prevented relapse, which is the major risk associated with TNBC. Altogether, our observations suggest PLK1 inhibition as an attractive therapeutic approach, in association with conventional chemotherapy, for the management of patients with TNBC. © 2012 AACR.

Couderc C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Couderc C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Boin A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Boin A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 29 more authors.
Neoplasia (United States) | Year: 2016

The Hippo signaling network is a key regulator of cell fate. In the recent years, it was shown that its implication in cancer goes well beyond the sole role of YAP transcriptional activity and its regulation by the canonical MST/LATS kinase cascade. Here we show that the motin family member AMOTL1 is an important effector of Hippo signaling in breast cancer. AMOTL1 connects Hippo signaling to tumor cell aggressiveness. We show that both canonical and noncanonical Hippo signaling modulates AMOTL1 levels. The tumor suppressor Merlin triggers AMOTL1 proteasomal degradation mediated by the NEDD family of ubiquitin ligases through direct interaction. In parallel, YAP stimulates AMOTL1 expression. The loss of Merlin expression and the induction of Yap activity that are frequently observed in breast cancers thus result in elevated AMOTL1 levels. AMOTL1 expression is sufficient to trigger tumor cell migration and stimulates proliferation by activating c-Src. In a large cohort of human breast tumors, we show that AMOTL1 protein levels are upregulated during cancer progression and that, importantly, the expression of AMOTL1 in lymph node metastasis appears predictive of the risk of relapse. Hence we uncover an important mechanism by which Hippo signaling promotes breast cancer progression by modulating the expression of AMOTL1. © 2015 Institut National de la Santé Et de la Recherche Médicale.

Maire V.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Maire V.,Breast Cancer Biology Group | Baldeyron C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Baldeyron C.,Breast Cancer Biology Group | And 31 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents a subgroup of breast cancers (BC) associated with the most aggressive clinical behavior. No targeted therapy is currently available for the treatment of patients with TNBC. In order to discover potential therapeutic targets, we searched for protein kinases that are overexpressed in human TNBC biopsies and whose silencing in TNBC cell lines causes cell death. A cohort including human BC biopsies obtained at Institut Curie as well as normal tissues has been analyzed at a gene-expression level. The data revealed that the human protein kinase monopolar spindle 1 (hMPS1), also known as TTK and involved in mitotic checkpoint, is specifically overexpressed in TNBC, compared to the other BC subgroups and healthy tissues. We confirmed by immunohistochemistry and reverse phase protein array that TNBC expressed higher levels of TTK protein compared to the other BC subgroups. We then determined the biological effects of TTK depletion by RNA interference, through analyses of tumorigenic capacity and cell viability in different human TNBC cell lines. We found that RNAi-mediated depletion of TTK in various TNBC cell lines severely compromised their viability and their ability to form colonies in an anchorage-independent manner. Moreover, we observed that TTK silencing led to an increase in H2AX phosphorylation, activation of caspases 3/7, sub-G1 cell population accumulation and high annexin V staining, as well as to a decrease in G1 phase cell population and an increased aneuploidy. Altogether, these data indicate that TTK depletion in TNBC cells induces apoptosis. These results point out TTK as a protein kinase overexpressed in TNBC that may represent an attractive therapeutic target specifically for this poor prognosis associated subgroup of breast cancer. © 2013 Maire et al.

Baldeyron C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Baldeyron C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Baldeyron C.,Breast Cancer Biology Group | Soria G.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Cell Biology | Year: 2011

Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), a major component of constitutive heterochromatin, is recruited to DNA damage sites. However, the mechanism involved in this recruitment and its functional importance during DNA repair remain major unresolved issues. Here, by characterizing HP1α dynamics at laser-induced damage sites in mammalian cells, we show that the de novo accumulation of HP1α occurs within both euchromatin and heterochromatin as a rapid and transient event after DNA damage. This recruitment is strictly dependent on p150CAF-1, the largest subunit of chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1), and its ability to interact with HP1α. We find that HP1α depletion severely compromises the recruitment of the DNA damage response (DDR) proteins 53BP1 and RAD51. Moreover, HP1α depletion leads to defects in homologous recombination-mediated repair and reduces cell survival after DNA damage. Collectively, our data reveal that HP1α recruitment at early stages of the DDR involves p150CAF-1 and is critical for proper DNA damage signaling and repair. © 2011 Baldeyron et al.

Baldeyron C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Baldeyron C.,Breast Cancer Biology Group | Brisson A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Brisson A.,Breast Cancer Biology Group | And 31 more authors.
Molecular Oncology | Year: 2015

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the breast cancer subgroup with the most aggressive clinical behavior. Alternatives to conventional chemotherapy are required to improve the survival of TNBC patients. Gene-expression analyses for different breast cancer subtypes revealed significant overexpression of the Timeless-interacting protein (TIPIN), which is involved in the stability of DNA replication forks, in the highly proliferative associated TNBC samples. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed higher expression of TIPIN in the most proliferative and aggressive breast cancer subtypes including TNBC, and no TIPIN expression in healthy breast tissues. The depletion of TIPIN by RNA interference impairs the proliferation of both human breast cancer and non-tumorigenic cell lines. However, this effect may be specifically associated with apoptosis in breast cancer cells. TIPIN silencing results in higher levels of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), indicative of replicative stress (RS), in TNBC compared to non-tumorigenic cells. Upon TIPIN depletion, the speed of DNA replication fork was significantly decreased in all BC cells. However, TIPIN-depleted TNBC cells are unable to fire additional replication origins in response to RS and therefore undergo apoptosis. TIPIN knockdown in TNBC cells decreases tumorigenicity in vitro and delays tumor growth in vivo. Our findings suggest that TIPIN is important for the maintenance of DNA replication and represents a potential treatment target for the worst prognosis associated breast cancers, such as TNBC. © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

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