Chan S.W.-W.,United Christian Hospital |
Cheung P.S.Y.,Breast and Endocrine Surgery Center |
Lee J.F.-Y.,Chinese University of Hong Kong |
Fung J.T.-K.,United Christian Hospital |
And 3 more authors.
Surgical Practice | Year: 2010
Objective: To survey Hong Kong women surgeon's current situation: their ability to balance career, personal and family life, and to look into some gender-specific issues. Methods: A 28-item questionnaire online survey was emailed to 142 female and 761 male surgeons with questions asking about four areas: demographic data, job satisfaction, work life balance and work opportunity. Results: Fifty-eight female and 114 male surgeons completed the questionnaire. The mean age of female surgeon respondents was significantly younger than male surgeon respondents (33 vs 43 years, P < 0.001). Both female and male surgeons worked long hours (70% female and 64% male worked >= 60 hours per week, P = 0.402); however, both felt satisfied or very satisfied with their current job situation (74% female and 76% male, P = 0.536) and were happy or very happy with other aspects of their lives (84% female and 82% male). More male respondents were married (83% male vs 35 % female, P < 0.001) and more married men had biological children at the time of the survey (83% male vs 62% female, P = 0.034). Both married males and females had family commitments affecting training, career advancement and overseas training. The majority of male and female surgeons did not experience discrimination during training or career advancement; however, more females felt discriminated against during selection and training processes (25% female vs 12% male, P = 0.001) and during career advancement (18% female vs 10% male, P = 0.013). Conclusion: Our survey results showed that both female and male surgeons are able to combine productive careers with satisfactory personal and family lives. However, both female and male surgeons faced many difficulties in their working lives; women may have more difficulties regarding family issues, as our survey showed that more women surgeons remained single and more married women surgeons had no children. Policies that facilitate a work life balance are important to attract and retain the best and talented physicians, regardless of sex. In view of the increasing number of women surgeons, frequent surveys are needed to determine whether women surgeons experience a working environment that ensures a level playing field. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 College of Surgeons of Hong Kong.
Fung J.T.K.,United Christian Hospital |
Chan S.W.W.,United Christian Hospital |
Chiu A.N.K.,United Christian Hospital |
Cheung P.S.Y.,Breast and Endocrine Surgery Center |
Lam S.H.,United Christian Hospital
World Journal of Surgery | Year: 2010
Background: We propose a new breast volume calculation method, treating the breast as an elliptical cone on craniocaudal and medial-lateral-oblique mammograms. This study aims to compare the accuracy and reproducibility of this proposed calculation method to the old Katariya method, which calculates breast volume as a circular cone on the craniocaudal mammogram only. Materials and methods: From January 2005 to December 2006, 83 mastectomy patients with recorded breast weight and available preoperative mammographic films were included in the present study. Two surgeons independently measured breast height and width on the preoperative craniocaudal and medial-lateral-oblique mammograms. Breast volume was calculated as a circular cone in the craniocaudal view, and as an elliptical cone in both the craniocaudal and the medial-lateral-oblique mammograms. The accuracy of each method was determined and compared by linear regression analyses. Interobserver variability was assessed by bivariate correlation. Results: The most accurate formula for calculating breast volume was the one that assumed the elliptical cone projection. The mean error of estimated breast volume using the elliptical cone (EC) formula is 3.8 cm3 (standard deviation [SD] = 133 cm 3). The mean error of traditional circular cone (CC) formula is -51.3 cm3 (SD = 182 cm3). From a linear regression model, the correlation coefficient of estimated breast volume using EC formula measured 0.977, whereas that using the CC formula measured 0.952 (Fig. 1). Measurements were reproducible between the two independent observers; the Pearson correlation for the EC formula is 0.93 (p < 0.001), and that for the CC formula is 0.95 (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Breast volume can be accurately determined from measurements made on mammograms. The proposed EC formula calculating breast volume on both the craniocaudal and the medial-lateral-oblique mammograms may be more accurate, as the horizontal and vertical dimensions of the breast are not always the same. In addition, height measurement on the medial-lateral-oblique film can eliminate the compression error as the craniocaudal film may miss the base of the breast and underestimate the breast volume. Taking both mammogram views for measurement is comparably reproducible to the traditional method. Reproducibility of measurement can be further enhanced by better defining the point of measurements. © 2009 Société Internationale de Chirurgie.