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Ma Y.P.,Institute of Cancer Research | Van Leeuwen F.E.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | Cooke R.,Institute of Cancer Research | Broeks A.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | And 9 more authors.

Women treated at young ages with supradiaphragmatic radiotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) have a highly increased risk of breast cancer. For personalized advice and follow-up regimens for patients, information is needed on how the radiotherapy-related risk is affected by other breast cancer risk factors. Genome-wide association studies have identified 14 independently replicated common single nucleotide polymorphisms that influence breast cancer risk. To examine whether these variants contribute to risk of radiation-associated breast cancer in HL, we analyzed 2 independent case-control series, from the United Kingdom and The Netherlands, totaling 693 HL patients, 232 with breast cancer and 461 without. rs1219648, which annotates the FGFR2 gene, was associated with risk in both series (combined per-allele odds ratio = 1.59, 95% confidence interval: 1.26-2.02; P = .000111). These data provide evidence that genetic variation in FGFR2 influences radiation-induced breast cancer risk. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

Finnon P.,Public Health England | Kabacik S.,Public Health England | MacKay A.,Breakthrough Breast Cancer Research Center | Raffy C.,Public Health England | And 4 more authors.
Radiotherapy and Oncology

Background and purpose: Identification of mechanisms of late normal tissue responses to curative radiotherapy that discriminate individuals with marked or mild responses would aid response prediction. This study aimed to identify differences in gene expression, apoptosis, residual DNA double strand breaks and chromosomal damage after in vitro irradiation of lymphocytes in a series of patients with marked (31 cases) or mild (28 controls) late adverse reaction to adjuvant breast radiotherapy. Materials and methods: Gene expression arrays, residual γH2AX, apoptosis, G2 chromosomal radiosensitivity and G0 micronucleus assay were used to compare case and control lymphocyte radiation responses. Results: Five hundred and thirty genes were up-regulated and 819 down-regulated by ionising radiation. Irradiated samples were identified with an overall cross-validated error rate of 3.4%. Prediction analyses to classify cases and controls using unirradiated (0 Gy), irradiated (4 Gy) or radiation response (4-0 Gy) expression profiles correctly identified samples with, respectively, 25%, 22% or 18.5% error rates. Significant inter-sample variation was observed for all cellular endpoints but cases and controls could not be distinguished. Conclusions: Variation in lymphocyte radiosensitivity does not necessarily correlate with normal tissue response to radiotherapy. Gene expression analysis can predict of radiation exposure and may in the future help prediction of normal tissue radiosensitivity. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Bajrami I.,CRUK Gene Function Laboratory | Frankum J.R.,CRUK Gene Function Laboratory | Konde A.,CRUK Gene Function Laboratory | Miller R.E.,CRUK Gene Function Laboratory | And 16 more authors.
Cancer Research

Small-molecule inhibitors of PARP1/2, such as olaparib, have been proposed to serve as a synthetic lethal therapy for cancers that harbor BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. Indeed, in clinical trials, PARP1/2 inhibitors elicit sustained antitumor responses in patients with germline BRCA gene mutations. In hypothesizing that additional genetic determinants might direct use of these drugs, we conducted a genome-wide synthetic lethal screen for candidate olaparib sensitivity genes. In support of this hypothesis, the set of identified genes included known determinants of olaparib sensitivity, such as BRCA1, RAD51, and Fanconi's anemia susceptibility genes. In addition, the set included genes implicated in established networks of DNA repair, DNA cohesion, and chromatin remodeling, none of which were known previously to confer sensitivity to PARP1/2 inhibition. Notably, integration of the list of candidate sensitivity genes with data from tumor DNA sequencing studies identified CDK12 deficiency as a clinically relevant biomarker of PARP1/2 inhibitor sensitivity. In models of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGS-OVCa), CDK12 attenuation was sufficient to confer sensitivity to PARP1/2 inhibition, suppression of DNA repair via homologous recombination, and reduced expression of BRCA1. As one of only nine genes known to be significantly mutated in HGS-OVCa, CDK12 has properties that should confirm interest in its use as a biomarker, particularly in ongoing clinical trials of PARP1/2 inhibitors and other agents that trigger replication fork arrest. © 2014 American Association for Cancer Research. Source

Moore A.S.,Institute of Cancer Research | Moore A.S.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | Blagg J.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | Linardopoulos S.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | And 2 more authors.

Aurora kinases are a family of protein kinases that have a key role in multiple stages of mitosis. Over-expression of Aurora kinases, particularly Aurora A, has been demonstrated in a number of solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Not surprisingly, these serine/threonine kinases have become attractive small molecule targets for cancer therapeutics, with several inhibitors currently in early-phase clinical trials. A small number of compounds developed to date are highly selective for either Aurora A or Aurora B, while the majority inhibit both Aurora A and Aurora B; many of these compounds exhibit off-target inhibition of kinases such as ABL, JAK2 and FLT3. It is currently unclear whether the therapeutic activity of these compounds in leukemia is primarily due to selective Aurora or multi-kinase inhibition. The most promising application for Aurora kinase inhibitors to date appears to be in FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia/Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph) acute lymphoblastic leukemia, particularly when caused by the T315I mutation. Here we review the growing body of evidence supporting the use of Aurora kinase inhibitors as effective agents for AML and Ph leukemias. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

Folkerd E.J.,Institute for Cancer Research | Dowsett M.,Breakthrough Breast Cancer Research Center
Journal of Clinical Oncology

To review the influence of sex hormones on the progression of breast, prostate, gynecologic, and colorectal cancer. The literature was reviewed in an informal manner utilizing the authors' prior knowledge to collate the current evidence for the involvement of sex hormones, particularly estrogens and androgens in the progression of a range of hormonally responsive cancers. In particular, the effect of treatment involving hormone withdrawal treatment was considered strong evidence for involvement. The impact of basal levels of endogenous steroids was considered. Data from clinical trials indicate the efficacy of therapeutic interventions that result in ablation or antagonism of host steroids for a range of cancers. Demonstration of the correlation of the completeness of withdrawal with clinical outcome together with direct evidence of progression from studies looking at the influence of tissue and circulating levels of sex hormones more recently in conjunction with gene expression profiles all provide compelling evidence for the involvement of steroids in the progression of disease. The involvement of steroids in the progression of cancer in hormone-sensitive tissues is well established and an important target for therapy. © 2010 by American Society of Clinical Oncology. Source

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