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Kalāheo, HI, United States

Liu Y.,Columbia University | Jones A.M.P.,University of Guelph | Murch S.J.,University of British Columbia | Ragone D.,Breadfruit Institute

Introduction. Breadfruit, Artocarpus spp., is a staple crop with the potential to alleviate hunger and increase food security in tropical regions. Guidelines and recommendations for cultivar selection and production practices are now required for establishment of breadfruit in new areas. Materials and methods. To respond to this need for spreading breadfruit, our study quantified the growth, development, yield and seasonality of 24 breadfruit cultivars (26 trees) established in Kauai, Hawaii, over a 7-year period from 2006-2012. Individual production profiles were generated for each accessioned cultivar based on major agricultural factors. Results. Across all cultivars of breadfruit (A. altilis), an average of 269 fruits per year was produced by each tree with an average fruit weight of 1.2 kg. Based on the planting density of 50 trees×ha-1, this translates to an average projected yield of 5.23 t×ha-1 after 7 years. Hybrids (A. altilis × A. mariannensis) had a higher yield than breadfruit. The data of our article support the previously proposed hypothesis for predicting breadfruit seasonality. On average, the peak season occurred from July to November. Conclusions. Ma'afala, the first widely available commercial cultivar, started to bear fruit within 22 to 23 months of planting. Other cultivars with potential for commercial production include Toneno, White, Rotuma and Meinpadahk. © 2014 Cirad/EDP Sciences. Source

Xing X.,Peking Union Medical College | Koch A.M.,Kelowna | Jones A.M.P.,University of Guelph | Ragone D.,Breadfruit Institute | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

During the process of plant domestication, below-groundcommunities are rarely considered.Somestudies have attempted to understand the changes in root symbionts owing to domestication, but little is known about howit influences mycorrhizal response in domesticated crops.We hypothesized that selection for above-ground traits may also result in decreased mycorrhizal abundance in roots. Breadfruit (Artocarpus sp.) has a long domestication history, with a strong geographical movement of cultivars from west to east across the Melanesian and Polynesian islands.Our results clearly show a decrease in arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs) along a domestication gradient from wild to recently derived cultivars.We showed that the vesicular and arbuscular colonization rate decreased significantly in more recently derived breadfruit cultivars. In addition, molecular analyses of breadfruit roots indicated that AM fungal species richness also responded along the domestication gradient. These results suggest that human-driven selection for plant cultivars can have unintended effects on below-ground mutualists, with potential impacts on the stress tolerance of crops and long-term food security. © 2011 The Royal Society. Source

Turi C.E.,University of British Columbia | Liu Y.,University of British Columbia | Ragone D.,Breadfruit Institute | Murch S.J.,University of British Columbia
Trends in Food Science and Technology

More than 80% of the world's hungry live in tropical and subtropical regions where small increases in the costs of imported food, fuel and fertilizer create periods of increased food insecurity. Over time, the traditional knowledge and the traditional crops of the region are being lost and diet-based diseases such as type II diabetes are increasing in frequency. Breadfruit, Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg, has been a staple food and traditional crop in the Pacific for more than 3000 years and is now being cultivated for food security in the Caribbean and other tropical regions. While there is some evidence to suggest that a traditional diet based on breadfruit and other Pacific staples can prevent onset of type II diabetes, detailed scientific studies have not been conducted. One of the important issues is the wide variability in reported nutritional composition of the fruit in studies that included many different cultivars grown in widely different ecosystems. We conducted a review of the nutritional data to determine the best consensus for fruit nutrition. We identified 41 individual studies that provide some proximate, carbohydrate, vitamin and/or mineral data. A majority of the studies do not provide sufficient botanical data such as species, cultivar name, or descriptive information that would indicate the stage of maturity of the fruit or factors of the local environment such as soil composition or rainfall. Despite these shortcomings, compositional data for breadfruit suggests that it has potential to mitigate type II diabetes and obesity in Oceania and elsewhere in the tropics where breadfruit is grown. Further studies will identify specific elite cultivars recommended for this purpose. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Liu Y.,University of British Columbia | Ragone D.,Breadfruit Institute | Murch S.J.,University of British Columbia
Amino Acids

Protein deficiency has been observed as a leading cause of malnutrition and child death in the tropics. The current study evaluated the protein quality of 49 important breadfruit cultivars (41 Artocarpus altilis and 8 hybrids of A. altilis × A. mariannensis). While significant differences were found between cultivars, all varieties contained a full spectrum of the essential amino acids and are especially rich in phenylalanine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine. The cultivar Ma'afala contained significantly higher total essential amino acid content than other varieties and higher-quality protein than staples such as corn, wheat, rice, soybean, potato, and pea. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Wien. Source

Jones A.M.P.,University of British Columbia | Jones A.M.P.,University of Guelph | Klun J.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Cantrell C.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Dried male inflorescences of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae) are burned in communities throughout Oceania to repel flying insects, including mosquitoes. This study was conducted to identify chemicals responsible for mosquito deterrence. Various crude extracts were evaluated, and the most active, the hydrodistillate, was used for bioassay-guided fractionation. The hydrodistillate and all fractions displayed significant deterrent activity. Exploratory GC-MS analysis revealed more than 100 distinctive peaks, and more than 30 compounds were putatively identified, including a mixture of terpenes, aldehydes, fatty acids, and aromatics. A systematic bioassay-directed study using adult Aedes aegypti females identified capric, undecanoic, and lauric acid as primary deterrent constituents. A synthetic mixture of fatty acids present in the most active fraction and individual fatty acids were all significantly more active than N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). These results provide support for this traditional practice and indicate the potential of male breadfruit flowers and fatty acids as mosquito repellents. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

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