BRE Global

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Lee D.-S.,Inha University | Koo S.-H.,BRE Global | Seong Y.-B.,Korea Conformity Laboratories | Jo J.-H.,Inha University
Sustainability (Switzerland) | Year: 2016

In order to evaluate the thermal and lighting energy performance of a kinetic façade using external movable shading devices, it is important to consider the operation of the shading devices since it can influence the performance significantly. This study proposes a calculation methodology which assesses the performance of the movable shading devices with the consideration of the movements of the shading devices. Calculation methods were derived by which solar heat gain, lighting energy requirement, and the primary energy equivalent to heating and cooling energy requirement can be obtained. Using the calculation methods, the optimal operation scenario for the movable shading devices was presented which can minimize the solar heat gain and lighting energy requirement. A comparison case study was carried out to demonstrate the use of the control strategies for a building where a drop awning was installed. The results showed that the optimal operation scenario suggested in this study can potentially deliver effective energy performance. The limitation and applicability of the suggested method were also discussed. © 2016 by the authors.


Hopkin D.J.,BRE Global | Hopkin D.J.,Loughborough University | Lennon T.,BRE Global | El-Rimawi J.,Loughborough University | Silberschmidt V.V.,Loughborough University
Fire and Materials | Year: 2012

Gypsum plasterboards are the most widely used passive fire protection for timber structures, especially in the case of light timber frame construction. Understanding the complex thermo-physical behaviour of plasterboard at elevated temperature is vital in the performance-based design of any structure adopting gypsum as passive fire protection (PFP). Numerous heat transfer studies have been conducted over the years where attempts have been made to simulate the fire performance of gypsum-protected assemblies, subject to standard fire exposure. However, contradictory thermal properties for gypsum plasterboard are apparent throughout. As a result, it is unclear from a practitioner's perspective as to which studies represent reasonable properties for design purposes. In recognition of this the authors present a numerical study highlighting the consequences of adopting many of the differing property sets available in the literature, the sensitivity of temperature development resulting from deviations from the assumptions that underpin such properties, and the consequences of adopting plasterboard properties derived from standard fire tests, in natural fire situations. The study presents heat transfer simulations conducted using the finite element software TNO DIANA coupled with both laboratory and natural fire tests conducted on Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs) and Engineered Floor Joists (EFJs). It is found from this study that plasterboard properties are highly sensitive to the assumed free and chemically bound moisture contents. Minor percentage changes are shown to have a significant influence on the temperature development of SIPs exposed to standard furnace fires, while some of the most accepted plasterboard properties available in the literature are found, in some cases, to be non-conservative when adopted in simulations of SIPs. More interestingly, it is also found that the properties of plasterboard available in the literature, largely derived from standard fire tests, are not independent of the heating rate. As a result, when such properties are applied to natural fire problems significant inaccuracies can occur. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Charters D.,BRE Global
Fire Risk Management | Year: 2012

The BRE Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) sets the standard for best practice in sustainable building design, construction and operation, and has become one of the most comprehensive and widely recognized measures of a building's environmental performance. A related initiative is BREEAM In-Use, which helps building managers reduce running costs and improve the environmental performance of existing buildings. It consists of a standard, easy-to-use assessment methodology and an independent certification process to provide a clear and credible route map to improving sustainability. Innovative building methods that have been developed to improve sustainability can be introduced in a way that ensures fire safety. The standard's primary objective is to provide insurers, fire services and regulators with evidence that innovative building systems can maintain acceptable levels of fire performance in the event of a fire.


Lee D.-S.,Inha University | Jo J.-H.,Inha University | Koo S.-H.,BRE Global | Lee B.-Y.,Chungbuk National University
Sustainability (Switzerland) | Year: 2015

The energy performance of buildings depends on how effectively the building envelope responds to climate. Architects, therefore, need to design building envelopes with the consideration of local climate characteristics in the early design stage. Simplified formulas were used that evaluate the heating and cooling energy demand of building envelopes, which were applied to a model building with envelope and climate properties according to eight climate zones. Two climate indices, P and S, were developed. P enables the comparison of the heating and cooling energy demand of building envelopes, and S is for comparing the solar heat gain during heating and cooling seasons to review the feasibility of installing shading devices. The physical properties of envelopes were set differently according to the requirements in each climate zone proposed by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1. Using local climate data, the P and S of 24 cities over eight climate zones in the United States were derived, which can be used to evaluate the heating and cooling energy characteristics of envelopes. The indices not only enable users to understand the characteristics of the local climate conditions in a simple manner, but also to carry out quantitative assessments on whether shading devices are feasible and, if so, what type is recommended. © 2015 by the authors.


Koo S.-H.,University of Edinburgh | Fraser-Mitchell J.,BRE Global | Welch S.,University of Edinburgh
Fire Safety Journal | Year: 2010

A sensor-linked modelling tool for live prediction of uncontrolled compartment fires, K-CRISP, has been developed in order to facilitate emergency response via novel systems such as FireGrid. The modelling strategy is an extension of the Monte-Carlo fire model, CRISP, linking simulations to sensor inputs which controls evolution of the parametric space in which new scenarios are generated, thereby representing real-time "learning" about the fire. CRISP itself is based on a zone model representation of the fire, with linked capabilities for egress modelling and failure prediction for structural members, thus providing a major advantage over more detailed approaches in terms of flexibility and practicality, though with the conventional limitations of zone models. Large numbers of scenarios are required, but computational demands are mitigated to some extent by various procedures to limit the parameters which need to be varied. HPC (high performance computing) resources are exploited in "urgent computing" mode. The approach adopted for steering is shown to be effective in directing the evolution of the fire parameters, thereby driving the fire predictions towards the measurements. Moreover, the availability of probabilistic information in the output assists in providing potential end users with an indication of the likelihood of various hazard scenarios. The best forecasts are those for the immediate future, or for relatively simple fires, with progressively less confidence at longer lead times and in more complex scenarios. Given the uncertainties in real fire development the benefits of more detailed model representations may be marginal and the system developed thus far is considered to be an appropriate engineering approach to the problem, providing information of potential benefit in emergency response. © 2010.


Tsoutsos T.,Technical University of Crete | Tournaki S.,Technical University of Crete | Gkouskos Z.,Technical University of Crete | Masson G.,European Photovoltaic Industry Association EPIA | And 7 more authors.
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

The European strategy for the coming decades sets specific targets for a sustainable growth, including reaching a 20% share of renewables in final energy consumption till 2020. To achieve this target, a number of initiatives and measures have been in force. Europe, is currently the largest market for PV systems with more than 75% of the annual worldwide installations in 2011. The favourable European policies as well as the Member States' supporting legislations have resulted in high market growth for photovoltaics.Applying PV technologies however, requires high qualified technicians to install, repair and maintain them. Until today, national markets have been growing faster than the skilled PV installers force can satisfy. The PVTRIN, an Intelligent Energy Europe action, addresses these issues by developing a training and certification scheme for technicians active in the installation and maintenance of small scale PV systems. During the implementation of the action, a market research was conducted in the six participating countries in order to record the stakeholders' attitudes, perceptions and considerations and to adapt the training methods, tools and materials to the national PV industry requirements and markets' needs. Indicative results of this analysis as well as the current situation regarding relevant training and certification schemes are presented in this paper. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Hopkin D.,BRE Global | Lennon T.,BRE Global | El-Rimawi J.,Loughborough University | Silberschmidt V.,Loughborough University
Structures in Fire - Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference, SiF'10 | Year: 2010

Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs) are formed from the lamination of two oriented strand board (OSB) facing plates and a highly insulated polymer based foam, such as expanded polystyrene (EPS) or polyurethane (PUR). The resulting lightweight panels are then used as primary load bearing compression elements for buildings such as domestic dwellings, apartment blocks, schools and hotels. The regulatory fire performance of SIPs, like many systems, is assessed via a standard fire test. However, it is widely accepted that this is merely a comparative method for determining one product's performance relative to another and hence gives little indication of a component's likely behaviour in a real fire. With this in mind BRE Global, with support from the UK Government, have undertaken a research programme to determine the fire performance of SIPs. The project comprised a programme of laboratory testing on single panels, numerical modelling and four full scale fire tests on two storey SIP structures incorporating engineered joist floors. This paper presents the findings of the large scale experiments. A companion paper discusses the laboratory work undertaken [1]. The aim of this paper is to present the findings of the large scale fire experiments. In summary, it has been found that SIPs systems may be able to meet the performance requirements of the UK Building Regulations. However, combustion of floor joists may lead to excessive deflection accompanied with a large rate of deflection as collapse is approached.


Hopkin D.,BRE Global | Lennon T.,BRE Global | Silberschmidt V.,Loughborough University | El-Rimawi J.,Loughborough University
Structures in Fire - Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference, SiF'10 | Year: 2010

In a process aimed at increasing knowledge in the area of the fire performance of emerging technologies, the UK Department for Communities and Local Government (CLG) have funded a research programme looking into the fire performance of SIPs. The project comprised a programme of laboratory testing on single panels, numerical modelling and four full scale fire tests on two-storey SIP structures incorporating engineered joist floors. This paper presents the findings of the laboratory programme. A companion paper provides details of the large scale fire tests undertaken [1]. The laboratory programme comprised a number of different tests on single panels with EPS and PUR cores, all protected with gypsum plasterboard. These included ambient ultimate load tests to determine appropriate loading levels for fire testing, heat transfer experiments on panels exposed to the ISO834 [2] heating curve and finally experiments on panels subject to combined heating and axial compression. The experiments indicated that the fire resistance of a panel is entirely reliant on the performance of the lining material. However this was shown to be capable of protecting the panels for 30 and 60 minute furnace exposure times.


Charters D.,BRE Global
Health estate | Year: 2012

The NHS has one of the world's largest and most varied estates, which at any time accommodates many of the most dependent people in society. With around 6,000 fires occurring in NHS premises each year, its duty of care--and that of other healthcare providers--demands very close attention to fire safety. Here Dr David Charters BSc, PhD, CEng, FIFireE, MIMechE, MSFPE, director of Fire Engineering at BRE Global, an independent third party approvals body offering certification of fire, security, and sustainability products and services, examines the critical role of fire risk assessment, and explains why the process should provide the 'foundation' for effective fire safety measures.


PubMed | BRE Global
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Health estate | Year: 2012

The NHS has one of the worlds largest and most varied estates, which at any time accommodates many of the most dependent people in society. With around 6,000 fires occurring in NHS premises each year, its duty of care--and that of other healthcare providers--demands very close attention to fire safety. Here Dr David Charters BSc, PhD, CEng, FIFireE, MIMechE, MSFPE, director of Fire Engineering at BRE Global, an independent third party approvals body offering certification of fire, security, and sustainability products and services, examines the critical role of fire risk assessment, and explains why the process should provide the foundation for effective fire safety measures.

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