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Koo S.-H.,University of Edinburgh | Fraser-Mitchell J.,BRE Global | Welch S.,University of Edinburgh
Fire Safety Journal

A sensor-linked modelling tool for live prediction of uncontrolled compartment fires, K-CRISP, has been developed in order to facilitate emergency response via novel systems such as FireGrid. The modelling strategy is an extension of the Monte-Carlo fire model, CRISP, linking simulations to sensor inputs which controls evolution of the parametric space in which new scenarios are generated, thereby representing real-time "learning" about the fire. CRISP itself is based on a zone model representation of the fire, with linked capabilities for egress modelling and failure prediction for structural members, thus providing a major advantage over more detailed approaches in terms of flexibility and practicality, though with the conventional limitations of zone models. Large numbers of scenarios are required, but computational demands are mitigated to some extent by various procedures to limit the parameters which need to be varied. HPC (high performance computing) resources are exploited in "urgent computing" mode. The approach adopted for steering is shown to be effective in directing the evolution of the fire parameters, thereby driving the fire predictions towards the measurements. Moreover, the availability of probabilistic information in the output assists in providing potential end users with an indication of the likelihood of various hazard scenarios. The best forecasts are those for the immediate future, or for relatively simple fires, with progressively less confidence at longer lead times and in more complex scenarios. Given the uncertainties in real fire development the benefits of more detailed model representations may be marginal and the system developed thus far is considered to be an appropriate engineering approach to the problem, providing information of potential benefit in emergency response. © 2010. Source

Charters D.,BRE Global
Health estate

The NHS has one of the world's largest and most varied estates, which at any time accommodates many of the most dependent people in society. With around 6,000 fires occurring in NHS premises each year, its duty of care--and that of other healthcare providers--demands very close attention to fire safety. Here Dr David Charters BSc, PhD, CEng, FIFireE, MIMechE, MSFPE, director of Fire Engineering at BRE Global, an independent third party approvals body offering certification of fire, security, and sustainability products and services, examines the critical role of fire risk assessment, and explains why the process should provide the 'foundation' for effective fire safety measures. Source

Tsoutsos T.,Technical University of Crete | Tournaki S.,Technical University of Crete | Gkouskos Z.,Technical University of Crete | Masson G.,European Photovoltaic Industry Association EPIA | And 7 more authors.
Energy Policy

The European strategy for the coming decades sets specific targets for a sustainable growth, including reaching a 20% share of renewables in final energy consumption till 2020. To achieve this target, a number of initiatives and measures have been in force. Europe, is currently the largest market for PV systems with more than 75% of the annual worldwide installations in 2011. The favourable European policies as well as the Member States' supporting legislations have resulted in high market growth for photovoltaics.Applying PV technologies however, requires high qualified technicians to install, repair and maintain them. Until today, national markets have been growing faster than the skilled PV installers force can satisfy. The PVTRIN, an Intelligent Energy Europe action, addresses these issues by developing a training and certification scheme for technicians active in the installation and maintenance of small scale PV systems. During the implementation of the action, a market research was conducted in the six participating countries in order to record the stakeholders' attitudes, perceptions and considerations and to adapt the training methods, tools and materials to the national PV industry requirements and markets' needs. Indicative results of this analysis as well as the current situation regarding relevant training and certification schemes are presented in this paper. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lee D.-S.,Inha University | Jo J.-H.,Inha University | Koo S.-H.,BRE Global | Lee B.-Y.,Chungbuk National University
Sustainability (Switzerland)

The energy performance of buildings depends on how effectively the building envelope responds to climate. Architects, therefore, need to design building envelopes with the consideration of local climate characteristics in the early design stage. Simplified formulas were used that evaluate the heating and cooling energy demand of building envelopes, which were applied to a model building with envelope and climate properties according to eight climate zones. Two climate indices, P and S, were developed. P enables the comparison of the heating and cooling energy demand of building envelopes, and S is for comparing the solar heat gain during heating and cooling seasons to review the feasibility of installing shading devices. The physical properties of envelopes were set differently according to the requirements in each climate zone proposed by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1. Using local climate data, the P and S of 24 cities over eight climate zones in the United States were derived, which can be used to evaluate the heating and cooling energy characteristics of envelopes. The indices not only enable users to understand the characteristics of the local climate conditions in a simple manner, but also to carry out quantitative assessments on whether shading devices are feasible and, if so, what type is recommended. © 2015 by the authors. Source

Charters D.,BRE Global
Fire Risk Management

The BRE Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) sets the standard for best practice in sustainable building design, construction and operation, and has become one of the most comprehensive and widely recognized measures of a building's environmental performance. A related initiative is BREEAM In-Use, which helps building managers reduce running costs and improve the environmental performance of existing buildings. It consists of a standard, easy-to-use assessment methodology and an independent certification process to provide a clear and credible route map to improving sustainability. Innovative building methods that have been developed to improve sustainability can be introduced in a way that ensures fire safety. The standard's primary objective is to provide insurers, fire services and regulators with evidence that innovative building systems can maintain acceptable levels of fire performance in the event of a fire. Source

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