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Garston, United Kingdom

Merci B.,Ghent University | Shipp M.,BRE
Fire Safety Journal | Year: 2013

This paper focuses on car park fire safety, more particularly on fire and smoke (and heat) dynamics. The first part deals with the choice of design fire, based on recent full-scale car fire experiments with modern cars and different set-ups. Different aspects of smoke and heat control (SHC) systems are then discussed from the perspective of smoke (and heat) dynamics. The focus is mainly on the effect of horizontal mechanical ventilation, a popular technique, on the smoke and heat generated by the fire source. Some fundamental differences from (longitudinal) mechanical ventilation in tunnels are described. Possible effects of water (sprinklers, water mist or from a fire brigade intervention), as well as some possible routes for further research, are briefly commented. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Abu Aisheh Y.,University of Birmingham | Yates T.,BRE | Gaterell M.,University of Birmingham
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Engineering Sustainability | Year: 2010

Higher education institutions in England occupy approximately 25 million m2 of gross space. Considerable sums of money are now being spent on refurbishing parts of the estate, much of which was built since the 1940s to thermal standards far lower than those expected today. The choice of whether to refurbish or demolish and rebuild requires a critical analysis of a range of environmental, social and economic issues. To this end the Association of University Directors of Estates developed a toolkit to identify crucial issues that need to be taken into account in order to make this choice clear. However, while the toolkit represents a considerable step forward, it does not include the projected impact of climate change and its uncertainty. Analysis of an existing naturally ventilated higher education building built in 1974 suggests that projected changes in the UK climate will have a significant impact on the likelihood of building overheating. Consequently, when assessing likely refurbishment options it is essential that the impacts of climate uncertainty now and in the future are considered. Source

Monari F.,University of Strathclyde | Strachan P.,University of Strathclyde | Ortiz J.,BRE
Proceedings of BS 2013: 13th Conference of the International Building Performance Simulation Association | Year: 2013

This paper reports on how sensitivity analysis techniques, applied to the inputs of calculation engines for energy certification and regulation compliance purposes, can provide guidance for simplifying their user interfaces. Two different techniques were employed: The Morris Method, used to screen the input factors, and Monte Carlo Analysis, used to assess the effects of approximations on groups of parameters. It is shown that this analysis approach can lead to useful reductions in user effort without significant loss of accuracy. Copyright © 2011 by IPAC'11/EPS-AG. Source

Matthews S.,BRE
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Forensic Engineering | Year: 2011

The construction industry is in a turbulent period. There are the uncertainties linked with the economic crisis that has affected many parts of the world over the last couple of years, with associated demands to do more for less. It is also facing profound challenges to meet desired improvements in the standards of performance of new and existing buildings in response to the goal of reducing environmental impacts, in particular their embodied and operational carbon dioxide footprints, adaptation for climate change and a package of related issues. The expectation is that the industry will have to significantly improve its performance during the construction phase and that the buildings it produces will have to perform substantially better, particularly with respect to the building envelope and its services. For example, the requirement for design solutions that are appreciably more highly optimised than those historically or currently produced is likely to introduce new risks, different problems and possibly new forms of performance inadequacy. In addition, the changes also need to take place very fast, with considerable change being required within the coming decade. This paper discusses how forensic engineering can help the construction industry respond successfully to these contemporary challenges and avoid, or at least minimise, potential pitfalls. Source

Stehle J.,Engineering Excellence Group | Butler A.,Engineering Excellence Group | Banfi M.,Arup | Livesey R.,Arup | Bregulla J.,BRE
Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete VII - Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete | Year: 2013

The Leadenhall Building will add a very distinctive shape to the London skyline. The external steel megaframe is one of the most visible parts of the building but the composite floors also include innovative features. The analysis for footfall vibration and the design of the floor beams for axial force used new approaches but the most significant innovation was the use of precast planks to span between the steel beams. The connection between the planks and the steel beams was developed partly in response to the specific challenges encountered on this project. Continuity between the planks for negative bending and in-plane shear was provided by the use of bars with threaded couplers and ducts cast into the planks. To transfer the shear between the slabs and the beams, a tab connection was used. A series of tests was carried out to establish the properties of the connection and validate the system. Results are presented in this paper. © ASCE. Source

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