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Marinho R.S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Silva C.N.D.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Afonso J.C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Cunha J.W.S.D.D.,Brazilian Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN)
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2011

This work describes a route for platinum recovery from spent commercial Pt and PtSnIn/Al 2O 3 catalysts using strong basic mesoporous and macroporous anion exchange resins (Cl - form). The catalysts were leached with aqua regia (75°C, 20-25min). Platinum adsorption was influenced by the presence of other metals which form chlorocomplexes (tin, indium) and also base metals (aluminum). However, it was possible to overcome this fact by a sequential desorption procedure. Aluminum was selectively removed from the resins by elution with 3molL -1 HCl. Platinum was desorbed passing 1molL -1 Na 2S 2O 3 (pH 9). Tin was removed by elution with 0.1molL -1 ascorbic acid. Indium was removed using 0.1molL -1 EDTA as eluent. Desorption efficiency exceeded 99% for all metals. Metals were recovered in high yields (>98wt%). © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Santos-Oliveira R.,Brazilian Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN) | MacHado M.,University of Toronto
American Journal of the Medical Sciences | Year: 2011

Introduction: There is a considerable body of evidence describing that the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of radiopharmaceuticals may be changed by a variety of drugs, disease states and in some cases, surgical procedures. Objective: To systematically search the medical literature and review the published evidence on adverse reactions to radiopharmaceuticals. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts and Science Citation Index were searched for studies reporting adverse reactions to radiopharmaceuticals. Controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and case series published in major Western languages were considered for the review. Each study included in the present review was described in a narrative way, and major components of each study were reported (ie, research design, patient characteristics, types of drugs and radiopharmaceuticals, dosing information and adverse reactions). Results: The majority of adverse reactions to radiopharmaceuticals described in the literature required little or no treatment, and their negative effects were generally mild and self-limited. Large longitudinal greater than 5-year studies reported prevalence rates of adverse reactions due to radiopharmaceuticals ranging from 0 to 25 cases per 100,000 administrations. Case studies on the use of technetium reported mild adverse reactions; however, some led to potentially harmful complications. Similarly, studies involving fluorodeoxyglucose reported more severe adverse reactions. Conclusion: The literature on radiopharmaceuticals adverse effects is scarce, and just a few studies were conducted to investigate the association between radiopharmaceuticals and adverse reactions. Despite relatively mild and self-limited symptoms, the current widespread use of radiopharmaceuticals requires constant monitoring for adverse reactions. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Costa S.D.,Brazilian Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN)
Safety and Reliability of Complex Engineered Systems - Proceedings of the 25th European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2015 | Year: 2015

The Angra Nuclear Power Plant is located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It comprises 2 units in operation and a third one under construction. They are licensed to operate for 40 years with an extendable lifetime possibility for 20 more years. To obtain the Brazilian regulatory body agreement the owner has to prove that the systems, equipment and structures are reliable. This report presents the methodology, based on Electric Power Research Institute guidelines, applied to ensure that the safety electronic systems reliability is consistent, provide maximum lifetime extension and a reduction in changes and upgrades. The Safety Electronic Systems Reliability Monitoring Program purpose is to monitor their performance during the plant operation and shutdown periods by running tests to predict faults, enhancing safety and supporting the company´s investment policy in exchanging or modernization of these systems as well as a tool to improve the maintenance program and operation strategies. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, London. Source

Gonalves Filho O.J.A.,Brazilian Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN)
Nuclear Engineering and Design | Year: 2011

This paper presents the results of the economic assessment of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) for deployment in Brazil using the assessment methodology developed under the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), co-ordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). INPRO initiated in 2001 and has the main objective of helping to ensure that nuclear energy will be available to contribute in a sustainable manner to the energy needs of the 21st century. Among its missions is the development of a methodology to assess innovative nuclear energy systems (INSs) on a global, regional and national basis. In 2005, Brazil submitted a proposal for the assessment of two small-size reactors as components of an INS, completed with a conventional open nuclear fuel cycle based on enriched uranium. One of the reactors assessed was IRIS, a small-size, modular, integral-type PWR reactor. IRIS was evaluated with regard to the areas of reactor safety and economics only. This paper outlines the rationale for the study and summarizes the results of the economic assessment. The study concluded that the reference design of IRIS complies with most of INPRO economics criteria and has potential to comply with the remaining ones. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Santos-Oliveira R.,Brazilian Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN) | Purdy C.,AHRM | Da Silva M.P.,University of Pernambuco | Dos Anjos Carneiro-Leao A.M.,University of Pernambuco | And 2 more authors.
Diabetologia | Year: 2011

Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the relationship between HbA 1c levels and subsequent cardiovascular outcomes in individuals without diabetes. Methods: We searched Medline, Embase and Scopus from initiation of the study until the end of 2009. One reviewer searched and another verified findings. Data were extracted by one reviewer and verified by another. We accepted prospective studies in any language reporting three or more quartiles for HbA 1c levels. Within quartiles, authors must have presented both numbers of patient-years at risk and cardiovascular outcomes. Outcomes per person-time at risk were regressed on average HbA 1c values using Poisson regression. We pooled β coefficients using Cochran's semiweighted (inverse variance) random-effects model. Study quality was assessed using the Downs-Black scale. Results: We investigated 16 datasets (nine for total cardiovascular events and seven for death) from five papers with 44,158 patients (44% men) over 404,899 patient-years of follow-up. There were 1,366 cardiovascular deaths (3.1%; 3.37/1,000 person-years) and 2,142 cardiovascular events (4.9%; 5.29/1,000 person-years). The overall meta-analytic β coefficients were 0.720 (95% CI 0.307-1.133) and 0.757 (95% CI 0.382-1.132) for cardiac death and events, respectively. Compared with the baseline value of 0.0427, an HbA 1c level of 0.05 was associated with a relative risk for cardiovascular death of 1.13 (95% CI 1.05-1.21), a 0.06 value with 1.34 (95% CI 1.13-1.58), and a 0.07 HbA 1cwith relative risk 1.58 (95% CI 1.22-2.06). Results for total cardiovascular events were similar. The average study quality was 0.7 (70%). Conclusions/interpretation: We conclude that HbA 1c was significantly associated with cardiovascular events and deaths in persons without diabetes. © Springer-Verlag 2011. Source

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