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Palma D.A.P.,Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission | Goncalves A.C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Martinez A.S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Mesquita A.Z.,Brazilian Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN)
Annals of Nuclear Energy | Year: 2016

In all nuclear reactors some neutrons can be absorbed in the resonance region and, in the design of these reactors, an accurate treatment of the resonant absorptions is essential. Apart from that, the resonant absorption varies with fuel temperature due to the Doppler broadening of the resonances. The thermal agitation movement in the reactor core is adequately represented in the microscopic cross-section of the neutron-core interaction through the Doppler broadening function. This function is calculated numerically in modern systems for the calculation of macro-group constants, necessary to determine the power distribution of a nuclear reactor. It can also be applied to the calculation of self-shielding factors to correct the measurements of the microscopic cross-sections through the activation technique and used for the approximate calculations of the resonance integrals in heterogeneous fuel cells. In these types of application we can point at the need to develop precise analytical approximations for the Doppler broadening function to be used in the calculation codes that calculate the values of this function. However, the Doppler broadening function is based on a series of approximations proposed by Beth-Plackzec. In this work a relaxation of these approximations is proposed, generating an additional term in the form of an integral. Analytical solutions of this additional term are discussed. The results obtained show that the new term is important for high temperatures. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Kovalchik S.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Ronckers C.M.,Dutch Childhood Oncology Group | Veiga L.H.S.,Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission | Sigurdson A.J.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 15 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2013

Purpose: We developed three absolute risk models for second primary thyroid cancer to assist with long-term clinical monitoring of childhood cancer survivors. Patients and Methods: We used data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) and two nested case-control studies (Nordic CCSS; Late Effects Study Group). Model M1 included self-reported risk factors, model M2 added basic radiation and chemotherapy treatment information abstracted from medical records, and model M3 refined M2 by incorporating reconstructed radiation absorbed dose to the thyroid. All models were validated in an independent cohort of French childhood cancer survivors. Results: M1 included birth year, initial cancer type, age at diagnosis, sex, and past thyroid nodule diagnosis. M2 added radiation (yes/no), radiation to the neck (yes/no), and alkylating agent (yes/no). Past thyroid nodule was consistently the strongest risk factor (M1 relative risk [RR], 10.8; M2 RR, 6.8; M3 RR, 8.2). In the validation cohort, 20-year absolute risk predictions for second primary thyroid cancer ranged from 0.04% to 7.4% for M2. Expected events agreed well with observed events for each model, indicating good calibration. All models had good discriminatory ability (M1 area under the receiver operating characteristics curve [AUC], 0.71; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.77; M2 AUC, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.86; M3 AUC, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.82). Conclusion: We developed and validated three absolute risk models for second primary thyroid cancer. Model M2, with basic prior treatment information, could be useful for monitoring thyroid cancer risk in childhood cancer survivors. © 2012 by American Society of Clinical Oncology. Source

Fonseca R.A.,Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission | Alvim A.C.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Frutuoso E Melo P.F.F.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Alvarenga M.A.B.,Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission
Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations | Year: 2013

This paper aims at performing a human reliability analysis using THERP (Technique for Human Error Prediction) and ATHEANA (Technique for Human Error Analysis) to develop a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the latent operator error in leaving EFW (emergency feed-water) valves closed in the TMI-2 accident. The accident analysis has revealed a series of unsafe actions that resulted in permanent loss of the unit. The integration between THERP and ATHEANA is developed in a way such as to allow a better understanding of the influence of operational context on human errors. This integration provides also, as a result, an intermediate method with the following features: (1) it allows the analysis of the action arising from the plant operational context upon the operator (as in ATHEANA), (2) it determines, as a consequence from the prior analysis, the aspects that most influence the context, and (3) it allows the change of these aspects into factors that adjust human error probabilities (as in THERP). This integration provides a more realistic and comprehensive modeling of accident sequences by considering preaccidental and postaccidental contexts, which, in turn, can contribute to more realistic PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) evaluations and decision making. © 2013 Renato A. Fonseca et al. Source

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