Brazilian National Institute for Research in the Amazon

Manaus, Brazil

Brazilian National Institute for Research in the Amazon

Manaus, Brazil
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PubMed | National Institute of Amazonian Research and Brazilian National Institute for Research in the Amazon
Type: | Journal: Chemosphere | Year: 2015

Roundup Original (RD) is a glyphosate-based herbicide used to control weeds in agriculture. Contamination of Amazon waters has increased as a consequence of anthropogenic pressure, including the use of herbicides as RD. The central goal of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects of RD on juveniles of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). Our findings show that biomarkers in tambaqui are organ specific and dependent on RD concentration. Alterations in gills structural and respiratory epithelium were followed by changes in hematological parameters such as concentration of hemoglobin, particularly in fish exposed to the higher concentration tested (75% of RD LC50 96 h). In addition, both RD concentrations affected the biotransformation process in gills of tambaqui negatively. Instead, liver responses suggest that a production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurred in fish exposed to RD, particularly in the animals exposed to 75% RD, as seen by imbalances in biotransformation and antioxidant systems. The increased DNA damage observed in red blood cells of tambaqui exposed to RD is in agreement with this hypothesis. Finally, both tested sub-lethal concentrations of RD markedly inhibited the cholinesterase activity in fish brain. Thus, we can suggest that RD is potentially toxic to tambaqui and possibly to other tropical fish species.


Da Silva F.,Brazilian National Institute for Research in the Amazon | Suwa R.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | Kajimoto T.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | Ishizuka M.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Forests | Year: 2015

Allometric models to estimate biomass components such as stem mass Ms, foliage mass Ml, root mass Mr and aboveground mass Ma, were developed for the palm species Euterpe precatoria Mart., which is the most abundant tree species in the Amazon. We harvested twenty palms including above- and below-ground parts in an old growth Amazonian forest in Brazil. The diameter at breast height D ranged from 3.9-12.7 cm, and the stem height H ranged from 2.3-16.4 m. The D, diameter at ground basis D0, crown diameter CD, H, stem specific gravity ρ, and number of fronds Nf were considered as independent variables and incorporated into a power function model. The best predictors were D2Hρ for Ms and Ma, D2HNf for Ml, and D for Mr. Slender index (H/D) ranged from 0.56-1.46 m.cm-1, and the D-H relationship suggested that the stem shape becomes more slender with increasing D. On the other hand, ρ increased with D implying a stiffening of stem tissue. The average root/shoot ratio was estimated as 0.29 which was higher than that reported for the non-palm tree species in the Amazon. Comparisons of several models to estimate Ma of different palm species, suggested that the variations of the D-H relationship and ρ should be considered to develop allometric models for estimating biomass in palm species. In particular the ρ largely varied depending on individual size, which should be important to consider, when developing the allometric models for palms. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Kochhann D.,Brazilian National Institute for Research in the Amazon | De Azevedo Brust S.M.,Brazilian National Institute for Research in the Amazon | Domingos F.X.V.,Brazilian National Institute for Research in the Amazon | Val A.L.,Brazilian National Institute for Research in the Amazon
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2013

Despite safety protocols, crude oil extraction and transportation in the Amazon basin has a potential for inadvertent oil spills, which can impact aquatic organisms in local rivers. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of crude oil on juvenile Amazonian fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, at various biological levels. Furthermore, the effect of crude oil on response to alarm substance, an important communication system in fish, was reported for the first time. Fish exposed to crude oil showed a 90 % decrease in their response to alarm substance and a 60 % decrease in swimming activity relative to control fish. Basic hematology was not affected, although an increase of 200 % of DNA damage and an increase of GST activity were observed in animals exposed to crude oil. Inverse correlations were found between genotoxicity end points and behavioral parameters, suggesting that genotoxic end points can also reflect behavioral changes. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Kunert N.,Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry | Kunert N.,Brazilian National Institute for Research in the Amazon | Edinger J.,Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry
Biotropica | Year: 2015

The relationship between sap flux and stem CO2 efflux was assessed for three mango trees. We observed higher than expected CO2 effluxes at the place of measurement under intermediate sap flux velocities and lower fluxes under high sap flux velocity. This variation disappeared after removing the tree crown. © 2015 Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation Inc.


Sadauskas-Henrique H.,Brazilian National Institute for Research in the Amazon | Braz-Mota S.,Brazilian National Institute for Research in the Amazon | Duarte R.M.,Brazilian National Institute for Research in the Amazon | Duarte R.M.,São Paulo State University | de Almeida-Val V.M.F.,Brazilian National Institute for Research in the Amazon
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2016

The increment in crude oil exploitation over the last decades has considerably increased the risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination to Amazonian aquatic environments, especially for the black water environments such as the Rio Negro. The present work was designed to evaluate the acute toxicity of the Urucu crude oil (CO), the chemically dispersed Urucu crude oil (CO + D), and the dispersant alone (D) to the Amazonian fish Colossoma macropomum. Acute toxicity tests were performed, using a more realistic approach, where fish were acclimated to both groundwater (GW), used as internal control, and natural Rio Negro water (RNW) and exposed to CO, CO + D and D. Then, biomarkers such as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation (LPO), serum sorbitol dehydrogenase (s-SDH) in liver, DNA damage in blood cells, and the presence of the benzo[a]pyrene-type, pyrene-type, and naphthalene-type metabolites in fish bile were assessed. Fish exposed to CO and CO + D, at both water types tested, presented increased biomarker responses and higher PAH-type metabolites in the bile. However, fish exposed to these treatments after the acclimation to RNW increased the levels of LPO, s-SDH (hepatotoxicity), DNA damage in blood cells (genotoxicity), and benzo[a]pyrene-type metabolites when compared to fish in GW. Our data suggests that some physicochemical properties of Rio Negro water (i.e., presence of natural organic matter (NOM)) might cause mild chemical stress responses in fish, which can make it more susceptible to oxidative stress following exposure to crude oil, particularly to those chemically dispersed. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Kochhann D.,Brazilian National Institute for Research in the Amazon | Meyersieck Jardim M.,Brazilian National Institute for Research in the Amazon | Valdez Domingos F.X.,Brazilian National Institute for Research in the Amazon | Luis Val A.,Brazilian National Institute for Research in the Amazon
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2015

The largest Brazilian terrestrial province of petroleum mining is located at the margins of Urucu River, Amazonas. Mined crude oil is transported along 400km across Solimões River to be refined in Manaus. Thus, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of crude oil exposure on biochemical, physiological and behavioral parameters of juveniles of the Amazonian fish tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). The toxicity of water-soluble and insoluble oil fractions and the influence of a layer formed by the oil on the water surface from low and high concentrations of crude oil were analyzed. The results showed a strong physical effect of oil at the water surface and a significant effect on fish behavior. Swimming time and response to alarm substance decreased when fish was exposed for just one day to water insoluble fraction, and remain lower after 30 days of exposure, compared to control. Chronic exposure to water insoluble fraction of the inert oil also affected these two parameters. Critical swimming velocity decreased in fish exposed to both crude and inert oil water insoluble fraction. These reductions are possibly related to a decrease in aerobic capacity. Only exposure to high concentrations of petroleum water-soluble fractions induced transient alterations of the analyzed parameters. The exposure of fish to low and high concentrations of water insoluble fraction of Urucu oil caused a reduction of responses to alarm substance, spontaneous swimming activity and swimming capacity (Ucrit), decreased activity of acetylcholinesterase, and increased activity of alkaline phosphatase. Severe hypertrophy of lamellar epithelium and extensive lamellar fusion of the gills were also observed. Overall, these results show significant behavioral and physiological changes caused by the oil layer on the water surface, which means that toxicity of petroleum produced by its chemical components is, in fact, in this fish species, enhanced by the presence of an oil phase as a physical barrier. •Effects of crude oil on the Amazonian fish tambaqui were analyzed.•Behavioral and physiological parameters were affected by the oil layer.•Oil layer at water surface causes stronger effects than dissolved PAHs.•Amazonian fish species that use air-water interface are vulnerable to oil layer during an oil spill. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Kochhann D.,Brazilian National Institute for Research in the Amazon | Val A.L.,Brazilian National Institute for Research in the Amazon
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2016

Differences in aggressiveness when competing for environmental resources are the main factor leading to social hierarchy in group living fish. Social status acquired is related to changes in physiological parameters, as metabolic rate. Habitat variation can interfere with aggressive behaviour and promote changes in physiological parameters associated with social status. The primary goal of our study was to investigate how differences in habitat complexity affect the relationship between resting metabolic rate (RMR) and social status in the Amazonian dwarf cichlid Apistogramma agassizii. We compared agonistic interactions between pairs of males in aquaria with different habitat enrichment levels, manipulated by adding shelters. RMR was measured before and after hierarchy establishment. Habitat enrichment promotes changes in aggressive behaviour and influences differences in metabolic rate between dominant and subordinate fish. We observed an increase in biting by dominant fish at high enrichment habitat, which could be related to the increase in territory value. We observed an increase in metabolic rate in dominant fish after hierarchy establishment. However, it occurs only in enriched habitats. We concluded that habitat structure interfere with behavioural characteristics in social hierarchies, as aggressiveness, and changes in aggressive interactions affect metabolic rate in different social ranks in the dwarf cichlid Apistogramma agassizii. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland


Kochhann D.,Brazilian National Institute for Research in the Amazon | Campos D.F.,Brazilian National Institute for Research in the Amazon | Val A.L.,Brazilian National Institute for Research in the Amazon
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology -Part A : Molecular and Integrative Physiology | Year: 2015

The primary goal of this study was to understand how changes in temperature and oxygen could influence social behaviour and aerobic metabolism of the Amazonian dwarf cichlid Apistogramma agassizii. Social hierarchies were established over a period of 96h by observing the social interactions, feeding behaviour and shelter use in groups of four males. In the experimental environment, temperature was increased to 29°C in the high-temperature treatment, and oxygen lowered to 1.0mg·L-1O2 in the hypoxia treatment. Fish were maintained at this condition for 96h. The control was maintained at 26°C and 6.6mg·L-1O2. After the experimental exposure, metabolism was measured as routine metabolic rate (RMR) and electron transport system (ETS) activity. There was a reduction in hierarchy stability at high-temperature. Aggression changed after environmental changes. Dominant and subdominant fish at high temperatures increased their biting, compared with control-dominant. In contrast, hypoxia-dominant fish decreased their aggressive acts compared with all other fish. Shelter use decreased in control and hypoxic dominant fish. Dominant fish from undisturbed environments eat more than their subordinates. There was a decrease of RMR in fish exposed to the hypoxic environment when compared with control or high-temperature fish, independent of social position. Control-dominant fish had higher RMR than their subordinates. ETS activity increased in fish exposed to high temperatures; however, there was no effect on social rank. Our study reinforces the importance of environmental changes for the maintenance of hierarchies and their characteristics and highlights that most of the changes occur in the dominant position. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Brazilian National Institute for Research in the Amazon
Type: | Journal: Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology | Year: 2015

The primary goal of this study was to understand how changes in temperature and oxygen could influence social behaviour and aerobic metabolism of the Amazonian dwarf cichlid Apistogramma agassizii. Social hierarchies were established over a period of 96h by observing the social interactions, feeding behaviour and shelter use in groups of four males. In the experimental environment, temperature was increased to 29C in the high-temperature treatment, and oxygen lowered to 1.0mgL(-1)O2 in the hypoxia treatment. Fish were maintained at this condition for 96h. The control was maintained at 26C and 6.6mgL(-1)O2. After the experimental exposure, metabolism was measured as routine metabolic rate (RMR) and electron transport system (ETS) activity. There was a reduction in hierarchy stability at high-temperature. Aggression changed after environmental changes. Dominant and subdominant fish at high temperatures increased their biting, compared with control-dominant. In contrast, hypoxia-dominant fish decreased their aggressive acts compared with all other fish. Shelter use decreased in control and hypoxic dominant fish. Dominant fish from undisturbed environments eat more than their subordinates. There was a decrease of RMR in fish exposed to the hypoxic environment when compared with control or high-temperature fish, independent of social position. Control-dominant fish had higher RMR than their subordinates. ETS activity increased in fish exposed to high temperatures; however, there was no effect on social rank. Our study reinforces the importance of environmental changes for the maintenance of hierarchies and their characteristics and highlights that most of the changes occur in the dominant position.


PubMed | Brazilian National Institute for Research in the Amazon
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2016

The increment in crude oil exploitation over the last decades has considerably increased the risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination to Amazonian aquatic environments, especially for the black water environments such as the Rio Negro. The present work was designed to evaluate the acute toxicity of the Urucu crude oil (CO), the chemically dispersed Urucu crude oil (CO + D), and the dispersant alone (D) to the Amazonian fish Colossoma macropomum. Acute toxicity tests were performed, using a more realistic approach, where fish were acclimated to both groundwater (GW), used as internal control, and natural Rio Negro water (RNW) and exposed to CO, CO + D and D. Then, biomarkers such as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation (LPO), serum sorbitol dehydrogenase (s-SDH) in liver, DNA damage in blood cells, and the presence of the benzo[a]pyrene-type, pyrene-type, and naphthalene-type metabolites in fish bile were assessed. Fish exposed to CO and CO + D, at both water types tested, presented increased biomarker responses and higher PAH-type metabolites in the bile. However, fish exposed to these treatments after the acclimation to RNW increased the levels of LPO, s-SDH (hepatotoxicity), DNA damage in blood cells (genotoxicity), and benzo[a]pyrene-type metabolites when compared to fish in GW. Our data suggests that some physicochemical properties of Rio Negro water (i.e., presence of natural organic matter (NOM)) might cause mild chemical stress responses in fish, which can make it more susceptible to oxidative stress following exposure to crude oil, particularly to those chemically dispersed.

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