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Maranhao E.T.,Brazilian National Cancer Institute INCA | Maranhao-Filho P.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria | Year: 2012

The authors highlights the importance of the vestibulo-ocular refex examination through the head impulse test as a diagnostic method for vestibular dysfunction as well as, and primarily, a bedside semiotic resource capable of differentiating between acute peripheral vestibu-lopathy and a cerebellar or brainstem infarction in emergency rooms. Source

Quintella Mendes G.L.,Brazilian National Cancer Institute INCA | Quintella Mendes G.L.,Oswaldo Cruz Foundation | Koifman S.,Oswaldo Cruz Foundation
Melanoma Research | Year: 2013

Melanoma survival is determined by disease-related and patient-related factors; there is a growing body of evidence that other issues may play a role in this disease. In this study, the role of socioeconomic factors in the evolution of melanoma was evaluated. This was a retrospective study with incident cases of melanoma treated in an oncology center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during the period of 1997-2004. The socioeconomic variable of choice was education (9 years or more vs. 8 years or less of school attendance). In this period, there were 1083 patients with primary melanoma of the skin, 58.1% with low school attendance. No difference was found in relation to the year of diagnosis with respect to overall survival. Five-year survival for the entire group was 67.0%. Men had worse survival [hazard ratio (HR) 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.54-2.35]; a protective effect was found for whites (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.49-0.84), higher educational level (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.44-0.69), and upper limb lesions (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.38-0.98). A higher risk of death was observed for patients with nodular melanoma (HR 1.96, 95% CI 1.49-2.58), acrolentiginous melanoma (HR 2.68, 95% CI 2.09-3.44), lesions in the soles and palms (HR 1.78, 95% CI 1.22-2.6), and increasing age (HR 1.02 for each year, 95% CI 1.01-1.02). In the multivariate analysis, after controlling for stage, age, sex, ethnicity, and clinical type, education remained a protective factor both for overall survival (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.61-0.94) and for relapse-free survival (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.61-0.94). In conclusion, socioeconomic status as measured by educational level represented an important factor related to melanoma clinical evolution in the cohort studied. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Szklo A.S.,Brazilian National Cancer Institute INCA | Coutinho E.S.F.,Oswaldo Cruz Foundation
Addictive Behaviors | Year: 2010

Smoking is a worldwide public health problem, and various communication strategies aimed at its cessation have been used. The objective of this paper was to explore differences over time of two communication strategies (gain-framed versus loss-framed) in encouraging calls to a Quitline, according to smoker's degree of dependence. A study was conducted for four weeks among passengers of two selected subway stations in the city of Rio de Janeiro-Brazil (Naverage = 12,500 passengers a day per station). The interventions - large posters with images and text based on central theme "shortness-of-breath" - also contained the Quitline number. Call rate differences between the strategies, overall and specific per study week, were calculated. Light smokers exposed to the positive-content message called on average 2.2 times more often than those exposed to the negative-content message (p < 0.001). The absolute difference in call rates decreased after the first week of the study (p for the additive interaction between intervention and study week, 0.02). For heavy smokers, no differences between the two stations were observed. Additive interaction was found between type of smoker - light or heavy - and intervention (p = 0.02). The results suggest that short-term positive-content campaigns based on issues pertaining to individuals' daily routine could be effective in capturing light smokers. These results may have considerable public health impact, as the prevalence of less dependent smokers is much higher than that of heavier smokers. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

De Freitas-Junior J.C.M.,Brazilian National Cancer Institute INCA | Morgado-Diaz J.A.,Brazilian National Cancer Institute INCA
Oncotarget | Year: 2016

Changes in glycosylation, which is one of the most common protein post-translational modifications, are considered to be a hallmark of cancer. N-glycans can modulate cell migration, cell-cell adhesion, cell signaling, growth and metastasis. The colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality and the correlation between CRC progression and changes in the pattern of expression of N-glycans is being considered in the search for new biomarkers. Here, we review the role of N-glycans in CRC cell biology. The perspectives on emerging N-glycan-related anticancer therapies, along with new insights and challenges, are also discussed. Source

Szklo A.S.,Brazilian National Cancer Institute INCA | De Almeida L.M.,Brazilian National Cancer Institute INCA | Figueiredo V.C.,Public Health Studies Institute IESC | Autran M.,Brazilian National Cancer Institute INCA | And 3 more authors.
Preventive Medicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To evaluate the differences in cigarette smoking prevalence rates in Brazil between 1989 and 2008. Methodology: We calculated absolute and relative differences in smoking prevalences, overall and stratified by gender, age, place of residence, educational level and birth cohort. Data were obtained from random samples from two National Household Surveys (1989,n = 39,969; 2008,n = 38,461). GLM models were specified to obtain estimates and assess whether differences in proportions of smokers differed by categories of the stratification variables. Results: Adjusted absolute and relative differences in smoking prevalence rates between 1989 and 2008 were, respectively, -12.4% and -41.0%. Individuals aged 15-34years and those with 9 or more years of education presented larger relative declines than their counterparts (p s≤0.001). After stratification by birth cohort, men presented larger reductions than women, only in the absolute scale (p s≤0.001), with the exception of the youngest birth cohort (i.e.,1965-1974). Conclusions: In Brazil, several tobacco control measures have been adopted since 1986, in particular increasing taxation of tobacco products and strong health warnings, which may have contributed to the marked decline in smoking prevalence. It is important to understand the evolution of the tobacco epidemic to propose new actions to prevent initiation and encourage cessation among those who started/continued smoking. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

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