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Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Floriani C.A.,Brazilian National Cancer Institute | Schramm F.R.,Oswaldo Cruz Foundation
Palliative and Supportive Care

Hospitality is commonly referred as one of the meanings of hospes, the Latin word which is also the root of hospice. This article explores the semantics of the word hospice - the seal of identity of modern hospice movement - and attempts to integrate the meaning of hospitality into the modern hospice movement, understood as unconditional reception. Therefore, the article analyzes the concept of unconditional hospitality, developed by Jacques Derrida and that of ethical responsibility proposed by Emmanuel Levinas based on the phenomenological experience of the other. From this point of view, these two concepts tie in with the meaning of hospice, bringing substantial grounding elements to the hospice movement for the construction of a protective ethos. © Cambridge University Press 2010. Source

Mendes G.L.Q.,Brazilian National Cancer Institute
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues

Melanoma is the leading cause of skin cancer deaths in Brazil, and accounts for 1% of cancer deaths. This study aimed to analyze mortality attributed to melanoma in Brazil during the period 1980-2005, for the population as whole and with respect to the age, gender, and geographical patterns of distribution, and the data were subsequently compared to melanoma frequency rates observed in other countries. Annual age-standardized mortality rates were ascertained for all regions with data provided by the National Mortality System. An exploratory analysis using log-transformed Poisson regression was conducted, and changes in mortality trends during this period were evaluated. Then the best-fitted trend model, ascertainment of the annual average percentage change (AAPC) during 1980-2005, was identified. Mortality associated with melanoma in Brazil increased during the period studied, with the APCC for the whole country being 1.1%. The rate was highest among the elderly: APCC 2.8% in those over 70 years old and 2.3% in females. The mortality ratio comparing South and North regions was 7 in 2005. An increase in mortality frequency associated with melanoma occurred in Brazil since 1980, with different patterns noted by gender, age and region. The observed results highlight the relevance of and need for public health policies toward skin cancer control. © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Freitas V.,Brazilian National Cancer Institute | Freitas V.,University of Toronto | Scaranelo A.,University of Toronto | Menezes R.,University of Toronto | And 3 more authors.

Background: Recommendation for breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening for women with a prior history of chest radiation is currently based on expert opinion, because existing data are very scant. The objective of this study was to evaluate added cancer yield of screening breast MRI in this population. Methods: A retrospective review identified 98 women with a prior history of chest radiation therapy who had screening mammography and screening MRI performed at the authors' institution between January 2004 and July 2010. Medical records of these patients and results of 558 screening studies (296 mammograms and 262 MRI) were reviewed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and added cancer yield were calculated. Results: Malignancy was diagnosed in 13 patients, invasive cancer was diagnosed in 10 patients, and ductal carcinomas in situ was diagnosed in 3 patients. The median latency from completion of radiation to detection of the breast cancer was 18 years (range, 8-37 years). Of the 13 cancers, 12 (92%) were detected by MRI, and 9 (69%) by mammography. For mammography, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 69%, 98%, 82%, and 95%, respectively; and, for MRI, these values were 92%, 94%, 71%, and 99%, respectively. In 4 of 98 patients, cancer was diagnosed on MRI only, resulting in an incremental cancer detection rate of 4.1% (95% confidence interval, 1.6%-10%). Conclusions: The current results indicated that MRI is a useful adjunct modality for screening high-risk women who have a prior history of chest radiation therapy, resulting in a 4.1% (4 of 98 women) added cancer detection rate. The authors concluded that both MRI and mammography should be used to screen women in this high-risk group. Cancer 2013. © 2012 American Cancer Society. Source

Ferlay J.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Soerjomataram I.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Dikshit R.,Tata Memorial Hospital | Eser S.,Hacettepe University | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer

Estimates of the worldwide incidence and mortality from 27 major cancers and for all cancers combined for 2012 are now available in the GLOBOCAN series of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We review the sources and methods used in compiling the national cancer incidence and mortality estimates, and briefly describe the key results by cancer site and in 20 large "areas" of the world. Overall, there were 14.1 million new cases and 8.2 million deaths in 2012. The most commonly diagnosed cancers were lung (1.82 million), breast (1.67 million), and colorectal (1.36 million); the most common causes of cancer death were lung cancer (1.6 million deaths), liver cancer (745,000 deaths), and stomach cancer (723,000 deaths). Source

De Araujo-Souza P.S.,Brazilian National Cancer Institute | De Araujo-Souza P.S.,Federal University of Fluminense | Hanschke S.C.H.,Brazilian National Cancer Institute | Viola J.P.B.,Brazilian National Cancer Institute
Journal of Immunology Research

Interferon-(IFN-) γ is an essential cytokine for immunity against intracellular pathogens and cancer. IFN-γ expression by CD4 T lymphocytes is observed only after T helper (Th) 1 differentiation and there are several studies about the molecular mechanisms that control Ifng expression in these cells. However, naïve CD8 T lymphocytes do not produce large amounts of IFN-γ, but after TCR stimulation there is a progressive acquisition of IFN-γ expression during differentiation into cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and memory cells, which are capable of producing high levels of this cytokine. Differential gene expression can be regulated from the selective action of transcriptional factors and also from epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA CpG methylation or posttranslational histone modifications. Recently it has been recognized that epigenetic modification is an integral part of CD8 lymphocyte differentiation. This review will focus on the chromatin status of Ifng promoter in CD8 T cells and possible influences of epigenetic modifications in Ifng gene and conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs) in regulation of IFN-γ production by CD8 T lymphocytes. © 2015 Patrícia S. de Araújo-Souza et al. Source

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