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Mangini P.R.,IPE Institute for Ecological Research | Mangini P.R.,Brazilian Institute for Conservation Medicine TRIADE | Mangini P.R.,IUCN SSC Tapir Specialist Group TSG | Mangini P.R.,IUCN SSC Wildlife Health Specialist Group WHSG | And 6 more authors.
Integrative Zoology | Year: 2012

Tapirs have unique nutritional needs, as well as anatomical, physiological, behavioral and ecological adaptations that must be considered when managing their health, both in the wild and in captivity. Information about how tapirs live in their natural habitats can provide crucial knowledge to prevent many of the health problems found in captivity such as infectious and parasitic diseases, reproductive issues and nutritional and behavioral disorders. Likewise, proper management in captivity can significantly contribute to in situ conservation programs. Conservation medicine is a science created to address the global health crisis that jeopardizes biodiversity causing imbalances among ecosystem, human, animal and vegetal health. In this context, common threats to tapir health and conservation, such as isolated and small populations surrounded by human activity, chemical pollution, domestic animals and their pathogenic agents, need to be better understood. This manuscript provides information about the health of tapirs both in captivity and in the wild and aims to encourage tapir conservationists worldwide to gather information about pathogen and disease dynamics and manifestation, as well as implications for tapir conservation.

Micheletti T.,Federal University of Paraná | Micheletti T.,Brazilian Institute for Conservation Medicine TRIADE | Micheletti T.,TU Dresden | Brown J.L.,Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute | And 8 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2015

The goal of this study was to optimize an ovulation induction protocol for use with artificial insemination in the southern tigrina (Leopardus guttulus). The specific aims were to report the efficacy of using altrenogest, an oral progestin (Regumate, MSD Animal Health, Merck Animal Health), to suppress ovarian activity and prevent follicular hyperstimulation and hyperestrogenism after the administration of exogenous eCG and hCG. To monitor ovarian responses, fecal estrogen and progestogen metabolites were quantified by enzyme immunoassay in females before and after intramuscular administration of 200-IU eCG and 150-IU hCG in two trials, 4months apart. During the first trial, there was no use of altrenogest, only the eCG-hCG ovulation induction protocol. In the second trial, the ovulation induction protocol was preceded by the administration of oral altrenogest for 14days (minimum of 0.192mg per kg per day). Altrenogest administration resulted in a suppression of follicular activity in three out of six females before eCG-hCG administration on the basis of lower mean estrogen concentrations (P<0.05). It also resulted in four out of six females presenting lower fecal estrogen metabolite concentrations (P<0.05) after ovulation induction, and two out of six individuals showed a reduction (P<0.05) in postovulatory fecal progestogen metabolite concentrations, all when compared to the same female's cycles without the progestin. Fecal estrogen metabolite concentrations were closer to baseline in 50% of these individuals after altrenogest and eCG-hCG treatments when compared to basal concentrations before gonadotropins without the use of altrenogest. This study reported that use of altrenogest in southern tigrina can suppress ovarian activity and avoid hyperestrogenism after administration of eCG and hCG treatment. However, not all females responded uniformly, so more studies are needed to increase the efficacy of ovulation induction for use with artificial insemination in this species. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

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