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Chaves M.A.,State University of Southwest Bahia | Barreto I.M.A.,State University of Southwest Bahia | Reis R.C.,Brazilian Enterprise for Agricultural Research EMBRAPA | Kadam D.M.,Central Institute of Post harvest Engineering and Technology CIPHET
International Journal of Food Science and Technology

The objective of this work was to characterise the foams of purple Brazilian cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.) pulp made with different additives, aiming at foam-mat drying. Characterisation was made through analyses of moisture, pH, acidity, soluble solids, density, water activity, colour, total and reducing sugars, protein and ashes. Drying was done at 55 °C for 2 h. Dried Brazilian cherry juice powder was rehydrated for acceptance test. It is concluded that the physicochemical characterisation of fresh Brazilian cherry pulp was satisfactory and was in accordance with the Brazilian standards for agro-industrial products. Albumin was the best foaming agent that produced a good-quality powder in a short period. The foam-mat drying of Brazilian cherry pulp using albumin and Superliga® (Duas Rodas Industrial ltda, Santa Catarina, Brazil) as foaming agents produced a powder with good physicochemical properties and sensory quality and most preferred juice. © 2013 Institute of Food Science and Technology. Source

Reinhardt D.H.,Brazilian Enterprise for Agricultural Research EMBRAPA
Acta Horticulturae

Brazil has been one of the three largest pineapple producers in the world over the past ten years, reaching a volume of 1.4 billion fruits or about 1.9 million metric tons, in 2002, from 61,000 hectares harvested, according to the IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). Ninety-nine % of this production is consumed inland, mostly on fresh fruit markets located at long distances from the main production areas. Consumer preferences may be influenced by regional habits, but usually the demand is for large (>1.5 kg), sweet and juicy fruits, with a good external appearance, including a partly yellow rind. Lower volume of fruits offered from February to April has determined higher prices on farmer and consumer levels. Those demands and market characteristics have influenced pineapple crop management in Brazil, resulting in adjustments of traditional cultural practices and the introduction of new ones, which will be addressed in this work. Emphasis will be given to aspects of planting systems and their interaction with fruit sizes, strategies to reduce natural flowering and get off-season fruit harvest and to the selection of genotypes and cultural practices related to fruit quality. Source

Wang W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Feng B.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Feng B.,Tropical Crop Genetic Resources Institute | Xiao J.,CAS Beijing Institute of Genomics | And 80 more authors.
Nature Communications

Cassava is a major tropical food crop in the Euphorbiaceae family that has high carbohydrate production potential and adaptability to diverse environments. Here we present the draft genome sequences of a wild ancestor and a domesticated variety of cassava and comparative analyses with a partial inbred line. We identify 1,584 and 1,678 gene models specific to the wild and domesticated varieties, respectively, and discover high heterozygosity and millions of single-nucleotide variations. Our analyses reveal that genes involved in photosynthesis, starch accumulation and abiotic stresses have been positively selected, whereas those involved in cell wall biosynthesis and secondary metabolism, including cyanogenic glucoside formation, have been negatively selected in the cultivated varieties, reflecting the result of natural selection and domestication. Differences in microRNA genes and retrotransposon regulation could partly explain an increased carbon flux towards starch accumulation and reduced cyanogenic glucoside accumulation in domesticated cassava. These results may contribute to genetic improvement of cassava through better understanding of its biology. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Abdelnur P.V.,Brazilian Enterprise for Agricultural Research EMBRAPA | Vaz B.G.,Federal University of Goais | Rocha J.D.,Brazilian Enterprise for Agricultural Research EMBRAPA | De Almeida M.B.B.,Petrobras | And 2 more authors.
Energy and Fuels

Next-generation biofuels have been widely investigated because they have particular advantages compared to first-generation biofuels. Pyrolysis is an example of a thermochemical route extensively used in oil and coal industries worldwide to produce these biofuels. Strategies for low-cost upgrading are among the biggest challenges facing the adoption of bio-oils in the development of commercial biofuels. Specific biomass sources could be the best option for generating bio-oil with the required properties. For this, it is necessary to understand the composition of these biomasses and their bio-oils. Here, we analyzed bio-oil samples from the fast pyrolysis of different biomasses collected during two different steps of the process by direct-infusion high-resolution mass spectrometry. First, a comparative study of two common high-resolution mass spectrometers, quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS) and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), was performed to validate the methodology and to investigate the differences in mass discrimination and resolution. FT-ICR MS showed the best performance because of its unsurpassed resolution and accuracy. We apply the common petroleomics tools to interpret the mass spectra obtained. The FT-ICR MS analysis reveals that bio-oils are dominated by Ox species. The class profile of bio-oils was strongly affected by the biomass and steps of the pyrolysis process. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

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