Brazilian Enterprise for Agricultural Research

Campo Grande, Brazil

Brazilian Enterprise for Agricultural Research

Campo Grande, Brazil
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Braga A.,Grande Rio University | Suita de Castro L.A.,Brazilian Enterprise for Agricultural Research | Poersch L.H.,Grande Rio University | Wasielesky W.,Grande Rio University
Aquaculture | Year: 2014

The present study evaluated spermatozoal capacitation in Farfantepenaeus paulensis. This process has direct applications in aquaculture, and it consists of the ionic, biochemical and morphological changes during the period that the spermatophore is stored or adhered to the thelycum. These changes make the spermatozoa capable of fertilization. The morphological changes of spermatozoal capacitation have been previously investigated only in sicyoniids and open-thelycum penaeids. Thus, this study is the first morphological account of a closed-thelycum penaeid. F. paulensis broodstock were captured offshore in southern Brazil, and spermatophores were collected from the terminal ampoule and from the thelycum of sexually mature females that had naturally copulated. The ultrastructure of the spermatozoal capacitation was investigated via transmission electron microscopy. Spermatozoa of F. paulensis show the following changes related to capacitation: (1) the chromatin became less condensed; (2) the acrosomal region became more electron-dense (3) the acrosomal cap became less concave; and (4) the subacrosomal region became much more electron-dense. These results demonstrate that the morphological changes in capacitated spermatozoa of F. paulensis are similar to those previously reported for open-thelycum penaeids, i.e., Litopenaeus species. Further studies on the capacitation process are required, especially to evaluate the interaction between biochemical and morphological changes. Such research could be useful for developing biotechnologies that will allow spermatozoal induction without storing the spermatophore in the thelycum and therefore allow in vitro larval production. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

DE MOURA ZANINE A.,Federal University of Maranhão | NASCIMENTO D.,Federal University of Viçosa | DA SILVA W.L.,São Paulo State University | DE LANA SOUSA B.M.,Federal University of Sergipe | And 4 more authors.
Experimental Agriculture | Year: 2016

The objective of this study was to evaluate morphogenetic and structural characteristics of Guinea grass pastures subjected to two grazing frequencies (90 and 95% light interception) and two post-grazing heights (30 and 50 cm), during the rainy season and dry year. The leaf appearance rate varied only in the summer, the grazing pastures managed at 90/50 (light interception/post-grazing height) presented higher values in the leaf appearance rate (0.440 leaf/, compared with those managed at 90/30 (0.275 leaf/ and 95/50 (0.228 leaf/, respectively. In the winter/beginning of the spring, pastures managed at 90/30 (0.03 cm/ presented lower stem elongation rate in comparison with those managed at 90/50 (0.19 cm/ and 95/30 (0.16 cm/ Management strategies do not compromise the tissue flow in tillers and, consequently, can be utilized for the management of Guinea grass. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016

Carrara V.D.S.,State University of Maringá | Amado C.B.,State University of Maringá | De Melo J.O.,State University of Maringá | Mandarino J.M.G.,Brazilian Enterprise for Agricultural Research | Cortez D.A.G.,State University of Maringá
Journal of Medicinal Food | Year: 2011

Soybeans have been of interest of researchers because of the presence of isoflavones, a subclass of flavonoids, which have demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this study was investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of the methanol fraction from soybean, which contains mainly isoflavone glucosides and malonylglucosides. The anti-inflammatory activity of the methanol fraction from soybean was studied using croton oil-induced mouse ear edema and carrageenan-induced pleurisy models. The methanol fraction inhibited the ear edema in a dose-dependent manner: 0.625 mg/kg by 44.23% (P<.05), 1.25 mg/kg by 60.68% (P<.01), and 2.5 mg/kg by 65.68% (P<.01). Myeloperoxidase enzyme activity was reduced at the dose of 2.5 mg/kg (64.79%, P<.05). No effects were seen on carrageenan-induced pleurisy at different doses of the methanol fraction (100 or 400 mg/kg). These results demonstrated that the methanol fraction containing conjugated isoflavones showed topical anti-inflammatory activity. There was no acute toxicity in Swiss mice after oral administration of the fraction, at doses of 1,000, 2,000, 3,000, and 4,000 mg/kg. © 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.

Carvalho W.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Ianella P.,Brazilian Enterprise for Agricultural Research | Arnoldi F.G.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Caetano A.R.,Brazilian Enterprise for Agricultural Research | And 8 more authors.
Immunogenetics | Year: 2011

Bovines present contrasting, heritable phenotypes of infestations with the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Tick salivary glands produce IgG-binding proteins (IGBPs) as a mechanism for escaping from host antibodies that these ectoparasites ingest during blood meals. Allotypes that occur in the constant region of IgG may differ in their capacity to bind with tick IGBPs; this may be reflected by the distribution of distinct allotypes according to phenotypes of tick infestations. In order to test this hypothesis, we investigated the frequency of haplotypes of bovine IgG2 among tick-resistant and tick-susceptible breeds of bovines. Sequencing of the gene coding for the heavy chain of IgG2 from 114 tick-resistant (Bos taurus indicus, Nelore breed) and tick-susceptible (B. t. taurus, Holstein breed) bovines revealed SNPs that generated 13 different haplotypes, of which 11 were novel and 5 were exclusive of Holstein and 3 of Nelore breeds. Alignment and modeling of coded haplotypes for hinge regions of the bovine IgG2 showed that they differ in the distribution of polar and hydrophobic amino acids and in shape according to the distribution of these amino acids. We also found that there was an association between genotypes of the constant region of the IgG2 heavy chain with phenotypes of tick infestations. These findings open the possibility of investigating if certain IgG allotypes hinder the function of tick IGBPs. If so, they may be markers for breeding for resistance against tick infestations. © 2011 The Author(s).

Monteiro G.E.R.,Eduardo Mondlane University | Bechara G.H.,São Paulo State University | Franzin A.M.,University of Sao Paulo | de Miranda Santos I.K.F.,University of Sao Paulo | de Miranda Santos I.K.F.,Brazilian Enterprise for Agricultural Research
Experimental and Applied Acarology | Year: 2011

Resistance to tick feeding has been previously shown to be an acquired, immunologically mediated phenomenon in goats, associated with cutaneous basophilia to nymphs of Amblyomma cajennense, the Cayenne tick, after repeated infestations. On the other hand, it is well known that antigen-presenting cells (APCs) play an important role in the host immune reaction to tick infestations. The most able APCs for Th cells are the well defined dendritic cells, mononuclear phagocytes and B-lymphocytes. Immunohistochemical analysis of draining lymph nodes of goats repeatedly infested with nymphs of the ixodid tick A. cajennense to search for APCs was done. Pre-scapular lymph nodes draining the tick attachment sites were collected 15 days after both the first and third infestations. Tick infestations resulted in increased number of CD21+ B lymphocytes in lymph nodes after the tertiary infestation. However, the number of CD11b+ and CD11c+ cells were not altered after the successive infestations. Lower numbers of CD11c+ cells had infiltrated lymph nodes responsible for draining the tick infested skin. These findings suggest that acquired immunity of goats against nymphs of A. cajennense is possibly established by B lymphocytes during the first infestation and that APCs may play a key role in this mechanism. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Zanine A.M.,Federal University of MaranhaoMaranhao | Vieira B.R.,São Paulo State University | Ferreira D.J.,Federal University of MaranhaoMaranhao | Vieira A.J.M.,Executive Plan of Cocoa Farming CEPLAC Bahia | And 3 more authors.
Ciencia e Investigacion Agraria | Year: 2016

An experiment was carried out to assess the performance of steers on Brachiaria brizantha and Cynodon dactylon cv. Coast cross pastures by the continuous stocking method with a variable stocking rate. A completely randomized experimental design was used with two pastures representing the treatments, each containing 10 replicates. The results of t-tests demonstrated that the steers grazed for less time (7:19 h) on the B. brizantha grass pasture than the on Coast-cross grass pasture (8:13 h). There was no difference in rumination time from 6:46 and 6:89 h for the B. brizantha and Coast-cross pastures, respectively. There was a significant difference for the values regarding the time that the steers remained idle, and the animals were more frequently idle on the B. brizantha pasture, which was associated with less grazing time because there was no significant difference in the total rumination time. The lowest bite rates were observed in the Coast-cross pasture compared with B. brizantha during the daytime and nighttime. Nonetheless, the total number of bites were significantly higher in the Coast cross pasture; however, the lowest bite rate overall was recorded in the B. brizantha pasture. These results suggested that there was a compensation mechanism between the grazing times and the bite rates so that the animals could regulate the quantity of forage ingested. © 2016, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Facultad de Agronomia e Ingenieria Forestal. All rights reserved.

Benedetti S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Prudencio E.S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Muller C.M.O.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Verruck S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2016

Tofu whey was concentrated using the nanofiltration process up to a volume reduction factor of 4.5. The concentrate was used to produce two fermented lactic beverages: (1) with 10% of concentrated tofu whey + 90% of milk; and (2) with 20% of concentrated tofu whey + 80% of milk. Both beverages were analyzed to determine the total lactic acid bacteria count and the physicochemical, rheological and functional properties during storage (30 days). It was observed that the total lactic acid bacteria count was >8 log CFU mL-1. It was observed that the total solids and protein contents of all beverages remained unchanged, but the use of concentrated tofu whey contributed to the post-acidification process. It can be verified that the viscosity was lower for beverage 2. The apparent viscosity of all samples decreased with an increase in the shear rate, indicating shear thinning and thixotropic properties. The Power Law model was successfully applied to describe the rheological behavior. The total isoflavones content was greater for beverage 2 and remained unchanged during storage, while the oligosaccharides content decreased during storage. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Diniz J.R.,University of Brasilia | Correa J.R.,University of Brasilia | Moreira D.D.A.,University of Brasilia | Fontenele R.S.,University of Brasilia | And 6 more authors.
Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2013

This article describes a straightforward and simple synthesis of ionically tagged water-soluble Eu3+ and Tb3+ complexes (with ionophilic ligands) applied for bioimaging of invasive mammal cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). Use of the task-specific ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-carboxymethyl- imidazolium chloride (MAI·Cl) as the ionophilic ligand (ionically tagged) proved to be a simple, elegant, and efficient strategy to obtain highly fluorescent water-soluble Eu3+ (EuMAI) and Tb3+ (TbMAI) complexes. TbMAI showed an intense bright green fluorescence emission selectively staining endoplasmic reticulum of MDA-MB-231 cells. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Abdelnur P.V.,University of Campinas | Abdelnur P.V.,Brazilian Enterprise for Agricultural Research | Abe S.,University of Campinas | Cunha I.B.,University of Campinas | And 4 more authors.
Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops and Foods | Year: 2011

Introduction: Metabolic fingerprint is a high-throughput screening to provide a sample classification. Objectives: Herein, we describe a metabolic fingerpint strategy for proof of authenticity and possible adulteration of natural products. This strategy provides useful and complementary information to food science for content analysis. Methods: Twelve samples of commercial royal jelly were analysed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in the negative mode. ESI-MS/MS was performed for characteristic negatively charged ions. Results: Thermostability studies were also performed to royal jelly samples in order to evaluate the change on chemical composition with different times of exposure to heating and storage at room temperature. Conclusion: The methodology developed in this work is useful to proof of authenticity and degradation of royal jelly samples using minimum sample preparation and direct injection of extracts. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Abdelnur P.V.,Brazilian Enterprise for Agricultural Research | Abdelnur P.V.,University of Campinas | Saraiva S.A.,University of Campinas | Catharino R.R.,University of Campinas | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society | Year: 2013

Quantitation and identification of blends of soybean biodiesel with petrodiesel were performed via mass spectrometry using two ionization techniques: electrospray ionization (ESI) and Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization in its liquid mode (VL-EASI). Different soybean biodiesel/petrodiesel blends (from B0 to B100) were diluted and then directly infused and analyzed by both techniques. To investigate adulteration of Bn blends,different soybean oil/biodiesel and soybean oil/petrodiesel blends were analyzed. Analytical curves were obtained in three replicates. The two techniques were shown to provide reasonably accurate quantitation in the B1-B20 range. These techniques were also successfully used to detect contamination or adulteration of Bn blends with vegetable oils. ESI is a widely used and commercially available technique whereas a VL-EASI source can be easily mounted using common laboratory parts requiring no use of high voltages. Both techniques require no pre-separation or derivatization steps and offer, therefore, simple and fast methods for the quantitation of Bn blends. The comprehensive snapshots of the molecular composition also allow quality control and typification of the biodiesel and eventually of the vegetable oils in illegal admixtures. © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Química.

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