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Ferreira J.,Brazilian Agriculture Research Corporation | Pardini R.,University of Sao Paulo | Metzger J.P.,University of Sao Paulo | Fonseca C.R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2012

1.Brazil is one of the world's major producers of food and biofuels. Agricultural expansion has driven rapid economic development but has also had major impacts on biodiversity and the conservation of ecosystem services in the country. 2.Here, we analyse recent advances in applied ecological research on the consequences of agricultural expansion for biodiversity in Brazil, identify knowledge gaps, and discuss how ecological science can help guide the development of more sustainable agricultural systems. 3.The majority of native vegetation in Brazilian biomes is found within private lands, emphasizing the importance of recent reforms to the Brazilian Forest Act legislation. Using the example of the Forest Act, we critically assess the extent to which ecological research has provided guidance for policy decisions to date. We identify important knowledge gaps regarding the ecological impacts of agricultural expansion in Brazil and the general disconnection between ecological science and environmental policy processes. 4.Synthesis and applications. Increased efforts are needed from both researchers and policy makers to engage from the earliest stage possible in the identification, assessment and communication of environmental issues and possible management solutions. Narrowing the gap between research and policy is essential if the academic community is to capitalize effectively on recent governmental investments in research and provide the necessary evidence basis for reconciling agricultural production and environmental conservation in Brazil. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Ecology © 2012 British Ecological Society. Source

Porpino G.,Brazilian Agriculture Research Corporation | Wansink B.,Cornell University | Parente J.,Getulio Vargas Foundation FGV EAESP
Journal of Food Products Marketing | Year: 2016

This qualitative study, grounded theory oriented, identifies familial affection and preference for abundance as major drivers of wasted food in lower-middle income American families. These positive intentions provide an improved understanding of household food waste, a problem with high environmental impact and moral implications. Based on empirical data collected with twenty caregivers via in-depth interviews, observations, and analysis of photos, this study provides novel explanations, such as on how stockpiling comfort foods in abundance – a form of both boosting positive self-emotions and showing affection for kids – can promote more wasted food. Other antecedents identified include multiplicity of choices, convenience, procrastination and unplanned routines. In sum, this research identifies a negative outcome of affection and food abundance in the family context, while providing a theoretically relevant general framework to help understand the food waste phenomenon. Authors suggest increasing the awareness of nutritional gatekeepers through behavioral economics principles. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Source

Souza R.T.D.,Brazilian Agriculture Research Corporation
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation | Year: 2016

Grape juice contains high amounts of anthocyanins, with great potential for substituting synthetic food dyes. Carrier agents used in spray drying entraps anthocyanins, allowing their preservation. This work appraised whey protein/maltodextrin (WM) and soy protein/maltodextrin (SM) blends as alternative carriers for spray drying of grape juice and encapsulation of anthocyanins. The effects of carrier agent concentration (CAC) and ratio protein/carrier agent (R) on grape juice powder properties were evaluated. The grape juice powders presented good solubility, low water content and high anthocyanin retention. WM blends resulted in higher yields and higher anthocyanin retention (from 77.9 to 94%) than SM blends, whereas SM blends leaded to higher encapsulation efficiency (>97%). Increasing CAC and R resulted in brighter powders, but reconstituted juices presented color parameters similar to those of fresh juice. WM and SM were suitable for encapsulating anthocyanins of grape juice, resulting in powders with potential applications in food industry. Practical Applications: The grape cultivar BRS violeta contains high levels of anthocyanins and is an alternative to produce antioxidant-rich and highly colored grape juice. Spray drying is applied for producing powdered grape juice with high anthocyanin content. In this technique, the addition of whey and soy proteins blended with maltodextrin as carrier agents avoid problems such as stickiness, which is negative to process yield and product quality. Moreover, the use of carrier agents in spray drying promotes the microencapsulation of bioactive compounds, allowing their protection and preservation during processing and storage. The grape juice powder from cv. BRS Violeta can be applied in the food industry as a potential substitute for synthetic food dyes, in addition to being a promising additive for incorporating anthocyanins into functional foods. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Bogiani J.C.,Brazilian Agriculture Research Corporation | Sampaio T.F.,Sao Paulo State University | Abreu-Junior C.H.,University of Sao Paulo | Rosolem C.A.,Sao Paulo State University
Plant and Soil | Year: 2014

Aims: Boron (B) is the most deficient micronutrient in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). It is generally accepted that B is immobile in cotton phloem, but some cultivars could remobilize the nutrient. In order to further understand B uptake and mobility in various cotton cultivars two experiments were conducted. Methods: In experiment-1, cotton cultivars were grown in 10B enriched or natural abundance nutrient solutions for 4 weeks and transferred to nutrient solutions ranging from deficient to sufficient in B. In experiment-2 10B enriched boric acid was applied to cotton leaves and B mobilization was determined. Results: In deficient plants, B previously supplied to roots was remobilized from older to younger plant tissues, but the amount was insufficient to maintain growth. Boron deficiency symptoms appeared and progressed with time. Boron applied to leaves was taken up and remobilized within 24 h. Boron mobilization was higher to plant parts above the treated region. Conclusion: Boron uptake and mobilization was similar among cotton cultivars. Boron applied to cotton leaves shows a preferential translocation to younger tissues. Foliar sprays of B to cotton may be used to cope with a temporary deficiency, but to achieve full growth and development B must be available to cotton throughout the plant cycle. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Campbell B.T.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Saha S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Percy R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Frelichowski J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 18 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2010

The cultivated Gossypium spp. (cotton) represents the single most important, natural fiber crop in the world. In addition to its fiber, the oil and protein portion of the cottonseed also represents significant economic value. To protect the worldwide economic value of cotton fiber and cotton byproducts, coordinated efforts to collect and maintain cotton genetic resources have increased over the last 100 yr. The classified genetic resources of cotton are extensive and include five tetraploid species in the primary gene pool, 20 diploid species in the secondary gene pool, and 25 diploid species in the tertiary gene pool. This report provides information on the status and contents of eight major cotton germplasm collections present across the world. Based on the findings of this report, a number of classified Gossypium species are not maintained in these collections, and several are underrepresented and vulnerable to extinction. This report presents several critical challenges and opportunities facing international efforts to enhance and preserve the world's Gossypium genetic resources. Multinational communication and collaboration are essential to protect, secure, and evaluate the global cotton germplasm resources. Without global, collaborative efforts, the rarest and most unique cotton germplasm resources are vulnerable to extinction. © Crop Science Society of America. Source

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