Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation Embrapa Goats and Sheep

Brazil

Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation Embrapa Goats and Sheep

Brazil
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da Cunha E.D.V.,Federal University of Ceará | de Souza G.B.,Federal University of Ceará | Passos J.R.D.S.,Federal University of Ceará | Silva A.W.B.,Federal University of Ceará | And 4 more authors.
Zygote | Year: 2017

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of BMP4 on activation, development and mRNA expression of GDF9, BMP15, PCNA, Bax and Bcl2 in cultured bovine follicles enclosed in ovarian tissues. Ovarian tissue fragments were cultured for 6 days in α-MEM+ alone or supplemented with different concentrations of BMP4 (10, 50 or 100 ng/ml). Classical histology was performed to analyze follicle growth and morphology, while real-time PCR was used to analyze mRNA levels in fresh and cultured tissues. After 6 days, the culture of ovarian tissue in α-MEM+ alone or supplemented with 10, 50 or 100 ng/ml BMP4 promoted follicular activation. The different concentrations of BMP4 maintained the percentage of normal follicles similar to results of the control. The presence of 100 ng/ml BMP-4 in culture medium increased oocyte and follicular diameters of primary and secondary follicles when compared with those follicles from uncultured control or cultured in α-MEM+ alone (P < 0.05). The tissues cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of BMP4 had an increase in mRNA expression of the tested genes, but despite this the differences were not statistically significant. In conclusion, 100 ng/ml BMP4 promotes an increase in diameters of follicles and oocytes of primary and secondary follicles after 6 days of in vitro culture. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2017


Oliveira M.E.F.,São Paulo State University | Ayres H.,University of Sao Paulo | Oliveira L.G.,São Paulo State University | Oba E.,São Paulo State University | And 6 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2016

This study was conducted to document the pattern of antral follicular wave emergence throughout the 14-day, progesterone (P4)-based estrous synchronization protocol in ewes that were maintained in subtropical conditions, during the period of increasing day lengths (ID), decreasing day lengths (DD), and the transitional period (TP). In addition, the influence of ovarian status (i.e., size of ovarian antral follicles and the presence of corpora lutea) at the outset of P4 treatment on ensuing ovarian follicular wave development was examined. Sexually mature Santa Inês ewes (n = 70) were subjected to one of the two estrous synchronization protocols in the three seasons. On Day 0, the ewes received an i.m. injection of prostaglandin F2α and an intravaginal P4-releasing device that remained in place for 14 days (G-1CIDR) or was replaced on Day 7 (G-2CIDR). Daily ultrasonography of ovaries was conducted from Days 0 to 15. Mean (±SEM) numbers of follicular waves per ewe were 3.7 ± 0.1 and 3.6 ± 0.1 for G-1CIDR and G-2CIDR (P > 0.05). The number of emerging follicular waves was greater (P < 0.05) during the ID period than during the TP and DD periods (4.0 ± 0.1, 3.4 ± 0.1 and 3.6 ± 0.1, respectively). The presence of medium-sized antral follicles (4.0 to 5.75 mm) in the absence of corpora lutea at the time of CIDR insertion tended to advance follicular wave emergence. Although the long-term P4 treatment was not originally designed to synchronize follicular waves, there was a distinctive pattern of follicular wave dynamics during the period of application of CIDRs that was affected mainly by the number of emerging follicular waves and ovarian status at CIDR insertion. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Gomes M.G.T.,University of Tocantins | Macedo-Junior G.L.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Ferreira M.I.C.,Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation Embrapa Goats and Sheep | Borges I.,University of Minas Gerais | And 3 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2014

The present work aimed to characterize the uterine involution after singleton and twin parturitions in Santa Inês ewes submitted to two nutritional diets. Sixteen pregnant pluriparous Santa Inês ewes, with age ranging from 3 to 5 years, were used. The animals were randomized into four experimental groups of four animals each. The experiment was a 2. ×. 2 factorial with number of lambs (singleton versus twin pregnancy) and diet (maintenance diet versus maintenance diet with 15% energy deficit). To determinate the number of fetuses, all ewes were submitted to an ultrasonographic evaluation at days 30, and checked at 45 and 60 days of pregnancy. Genital tract involution was followed by vaginal smear cytology and transrectal evaluation of the uterus by ultrasonography. Changes in cells from the vaginal wall were not useful to characterize the involution process of the genital tract in ewes, however leukocyte cells were. Ultrasonographic observations pointed to a longer period for reduction and stabilization of uterine size after twin parturition, and there was no alteration of the uterine involution process due to the level of nutritional restriction. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | University of Guelph, São Paulo State University, Jordan University of Science and Technology, University of Sao Paulo and Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation Embrapa Goats and Sheep
Type: | Journal: Animal reproduction science | Year: 2016

This study was conducted to document the pattern of antral follicular wave emergence throughout the 14-day, progesterone (P


Parente T.M.A.L.,Federal University of Ceará | Reboucas E.L.,Federal University of Ceará | dos Santos V.C.V.,Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation EMBRAPA Goats and Sheep | Barbosa F.C.B.,Federal University of Ceará | Zanin I.C.J.,Federal University of Ceará
Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy | Year: 2016

Background: Some authors have reported the antimicrobial action of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) on bacteria related to nosocomial infections but there are few studies evaluating PACT on Serratia marcescens grown as planktonic cultures or as biofilms. The purpose of this study was to analyze the S. marcescens resistance profile and its susceptibility to PACT. Methods: Initially, 55 S. marcescens strains isolated from environmental, oral and extra-oral infections were tested by antimicrobial resistance to cefotaxime (CTX), imipenem (IPM), ciprofloxacin (CIP), tobramycin (TOB) and doxycycline (DOX) using E-test®. Following, isolates grown as planktonic cultures or biofilms were submitted to PACT using the association of a light-emitting diode and toluidine blue (TBO). The E-test® results demonstrated intermediated sensitive strains to CTX, IMP, TOB, and DOX; and resistant strains to CTX, TOB, DOX and CIP. Also, CTX and IMP demonstrated variation when CLSI 2007 and CLSI 2015 were compared. Results: Planktonic cultures and biofilms submitted to PACT demonstrated counts varying from 1011 to 107 for planktonic cultures and 1010 to 107 for biofilms. There were no statistical differences in the results when planktonic cultures and biofilms were compared. Conclusions: Increase in the profile of S. marcescens resistance was observed when CLSI 2007 and CLSI 2015 were compared. Also, IMP remains as the drug with lower rate of resistance. Additionally, both S. marcescens planktonic cultures and early biofilms are susceptible to PACT under tested conditions. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Federal University of Ceará and Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation EMBRAPA Goats and Sheep
Type: | Journal: Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy | Year: 2016

Some authors have reported the antimicrobial action of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) on bacteria related to nosocomial infections but there are few studies evaluating PACT on Serratia marcescens grown as planktonic cultures or as biofilms. The purpose of this study was to analyze the S. marcescens resistance profile and its susceptibility to PACT.Initially, 55 S. marcescens strains isolated from environmental, oral and extra-oral infections were tested by antimicrobial resistance to cefotaxime (CTX), imipenem (IPM), ciprofloxacin (CIP), tobramycin (TOB) and doxycycline (DOX) using E-test(). Following, isolates grown as planktonic cultures or biofilms were submitted to PACT using the association of a light-emitting diode and toluidine blue (TBO). The E-test() results demonstrated intermediated sensitive strains to CTX, IMP, TOB, and DOX; and resistant strains to CTX, TOB, DOX and CIP. Also, CTX and IMP demonstrated variation when CLSI 2007 and CLSI 2015 were compared.Planktonic cultures and biofilms submitted to PACT demonstrated counts varying from 10(11) to 10(7) for planktonic cultures and 10(10) to 10(7) for biofilms. There were no statistical differences in the results when planktonic cultures and biofilms were compared.Increase in the profile of S. marcescens resistance was observed when CLSI 2007 and CLSI 2015 were compared. Also, IMP remains as the drug with lower rate of resistance. Additionally, both S. marcescens planktonic cultures and early biofilms are susceptible to PACT under tested conditions.


Oliveira M.E.F.,São Paulo State University | Ayres H.,São Paulo State University | Oliveira L.G.,São Paulo State University | Barros F.F.P.C.,São Paulo State University | And 5 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2016

This study set out to investigate the efficiency of long-term estrus synchronization protocols and ovulatory follicle dynamics in ultrasonographically monitored Santa Inês ewes during lengthening (LD; September-October) and shortening photoperiods (SD; April-May), and the transitional period (TP; January). In addition, the influence of ovarian status (e.g., size of antral follicles and/or presence of corpora lutea) at the outset of the estrus synchronization protocols on the ensuing development of ovulatory follicles was examined. Seventy sexually mature Santa Inês ewes were subjected to one of the two estrus synchronization regimens; on Day 0 (random day of the estrous cycle or anovulatory period), the ewes were fitted with an intravaginal progesterone (P4)-releasing (controlled intrauterine drug release [CIDR]) device, which was left in place for 14 days (G-1CIDR, n = 35) or replaced on Day 7 (G-2CIDR, n = 35), and received an intramuscular injection of 10 mg of PGF2α. The ewes allocated to the G-1CIDR group had mean serum P4 concentrations less than 2 ng/mL during the last 4 days of the synchronization protocol. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in mean ovulation rates between the two protocols tested nor among the ewes varying in ovarian status or studied at different times of the year, but ovulations occurred ~12 hours later in the TP compared with the SD period (P < 0.05). Ovulatory follicles emerged earlier (P < 0.05) in the G-1CIDR group than in the G-2CIDR group (Day 8.3 ± 0.5 vs. 9.2 ± 0.4) and during LD (Day 7.1 ± 0.6) compared with the TP (Day 9.1 ± 0.6) and SD (Day 9.9 ± 0.5 of the protocol). In conclusion, the replacement of CIDR devices prevented the occurrence of lower-than-normal luteal phase levels of P4 at the end of the 14-day estrus synchronization protocol. However, although this procedure and seasonal influences altered certain growth characteristics of ovulatory follicles, there were no effects of these factors on the mean ovulation rate. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Oliveira M.E.F.,São Paulo State University | Feliciano M.A.R.,São Paulo State University | D'Amato C.C.,São Paulo State University | Oliveira L.G.,São Paulo State University | And 5 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2014

The primary goal of this study was to employ ultrasonography to examine the ovaries of ewes undergoing superovulatory treatment for correlations between antral follicular blood flow and ovarian responses/embryo yields. Five Santa Inês ewes were subjected to a short- (Days 0-6, Group 1) and five to a long-term progesterone-based protocol (Days 0-12, Group 2) to synchronize estrus and ovulations after the superovulatory treatment. Porcine FSH (pFSH, 200. mg) was administered in 8 decreasing doses over 4 days, starting on Days 4 and 10 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. After CIDR removal, all ewes were bred by a ram and embryos were recovered surgically 7 days later. Transrectal ovarian ultrasonography was performed the day before and on all 4 days of the superovulatory treatment. Both an arbitrary-scale [(0) non-detectable; (1) small; (2) moderate; (3) intense blood flow] and quantitative analysis of the blood flow area were used to assess the follicular blood flow in color Doppler images. There were no significant correlations between the arbitrary blood flow scores and superovulatory responses in the ewes of the present study. However, there was a positive correlation between the quantitative estimates of follicular blood flow on the final day of the superovulatory treatment, and the number (DA: r= 0.68, P<. 0.05; DA/TA. ×. 100%: r= 0.85, P<. 0.05) and percentage (DA: r= 0.65, P<. 0.05; DA/TA. ×. 100%: r= 0.91, P<. 0.001) of unfertilized eggs (DA: Doppler area, TA: total area of the largest ovarian cross section). This experiment presents a commercially practical tool for predicting superovulatory outcomes in ewes and evidence for the existence of follicular blood flow threshold that may impinge negatively on oocyte quality when surpassed during hormonal ovarian superstimulation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | University of Guelph, São Paulo State University and Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation Embrapa Goats and Sheep
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal reproduction science | Year: 2014

The primary goal of this study was to employ ultrasonography to examine the ovaries of ewes undergoing superovulatory treatment for correlations between antral follicular blood flow and ovarian responses/embryo yields. Five Santa Ins ewes were subjected to a short- (Days 0-6, Group 1) and five to a long-term progesterone-based protocol (Days 0-12, Group 2) to synchronize estrus and ovulations after the superovulatory treatment. Porcine FSH (pFSH, 200mg) was administered in 8 decreasing doses over 4 days, starting on Days 4 and 10 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. After CIDR removal, all ewes were bred by a ram and embryos were recovered surgically 7 days later. Transrectal ovarian ultrasonography was performed the day before and on all 4 days of the superovulatory treatment. Both an arbitrary-scale [(0) non-detectable; (1) small; (2) moderate; (3) intense blood flow] and quantitative analysis of the blood flow area were used to assess the follicular blood flow in color Doppler images. There were no significant correlations between the arbitrary blood flow scores and superovulatory responses in the ewes of the present study. However, there was a positive correlation between the quantitative estimates of follicular blood flow on the final day of the superovulatory treatment, and the number (DA: r=0.68, P<0.05; DA/TA100%: r=0.85, P<0.05) and percentage (DA: r=0.65, P<0.05; DA/TA100%: r=0.91, P<0.001) of unfertilized eggs (DA: Doppler area, TA: total area of the largest ovarian cross section). This experiment presents a commercially practical tool for predicting superovulatory outcomes in ewes and evidence for the existence of follicular blood flow threshold that may impinge negatively on oocyte quality when surpassed during hormonal ovarian superstimulation.


PubMed | University of Guelph, São Paulo State University and Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation Embrapa Goats and Sheep
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Theriogenology | Year: 2016

This study set out to investigate the efficiency of long-term estrus synchronization protocols and ovulatory follicle dynamics in ultrasonographically monitored Santa Ins ewes during lengthening (LD; September-October) and shortening photoperiods (SD; April-May), and the transitional period (TP; January). In addition, the influence of ovarian status (e.g., size of antral follicles and/or presence of corpora lutea) at the outset of the estrus synchronization protocols on the ensuing development of ovulatory follicles was examined. Seventy sexually mature Santa Ins ewes were subjected to one of the two estrus synchronization regimens; on Day 0 (random day of the estrous cycle or anovulatory period), the ewes were fitted with an intravaginal progesterone (P4)-releasing (controlled intrauterine drug release [CIDR]) device, which was left in place for 14 days (G-1CIDR, n = 35) or replaced on Day 7 (G-2CIDR, n = 35), and received an intramuscular injection of 10 mg of PGF2. The ewes allocated to the G-1CIDR group had mean serum P4 concentrations less than 2 ng/mL during the last 4 days of the synchronization protocol. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in mean ovulation rates between the two protocols tested nor among the ewes varying in ovarian status or studied at different times of the year, but ovulations occurred 12 hours later in the TP compared with the SD period (P < 0.05). Ovulatory follicles emerged earlier (P < 0.05) in the G-1CIDR group than in the G-2CIDR group (Day 8.3 0.5 vs. 9.2 0.4) and during LD (Day 7.1 0.6) compared with the TP (Day 9.1 0.6) and SD (Day 9.9 0.5 of the protocol). In conclusion, the replacement of CIDR devices prevented the occurrence of lower-than-normal luteal phase levels of P4 at the end of the 14-day estrus synchronization protocol. However, although this procedure and seasonal influences altered certain growth characteristics of ovulatory follicles, there were no effects of these factors on the mean ovulation rate.

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