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Gyngell C.,Australian National University | Douglas T.,University of Oxford | Douglas T.,Brasenose College
Bioethics | Year: 2015

Reproductive genetic technologies (RGTs) allow parents to decide whether their future children will have or lack certain genetic predispositions. A popular model that has been proposed for regulating access to RGTs is the 'genetic supermarket'. In the genetic supermarket, parents are free to make decisions about which genes to select for their children with little state interference. One possible consequence of the genetic supermarket is that collective action problems will arise: if rational individuals use the genetic supermarket in isolation from one another, this may have a negative effect on society as a whole, including future generations. In this article we argue that RGTs targeting height, innate immunity, and certain cognitive traits could lead to collective action problems. We then discuss whether this risk could in principle justify state intervention in the genetic supermarket. We argue that there is a plausible prima facie case for the view that such state intervention would be justified and respond to a number of arguments that might be adduced against that view. © 2014 The Authors. Bioethics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Dickmann J.R.M.,Brasenose College | Dickmann L.M.,Goethe University Frankfurt
American Journal of Emergency Medicine | Year: 2010

Antipsychotics can cause acute rhabdomyolysis (RM) as part of a neuroleptic malignant syndrome or via a direct toxic effect on myocytes. Such a serious adverse effect has been rarely linked to quetiapine treatment. This report highlights a different pathophysiology of RM after quetiapine overdosing with suicidal intent. The 44-year-old patient had schizophrenia and took 9000 mg, 10 times his daily dosage. He became somnolent and later unconscious. After lying for 14 hours on a firm mattress probably motionless, he was difficult to arouse next morning and could hardly walk. In the emergency department (ED), brown urine and a creatinine kinase (CK) of 30 660 U/L were detected. Rhabdomyolysis was treated successfully with plasma expansion. A compartment syndrome led to bilateral peroneal paresis. A direct toxic effect of quetiapine on myocytes as claimed in the past is unlikely because, after reexposure to quetiapine 3 months later, CK remained normal. It is recommended that every patient who overdosed on quetiapine should be thoroughly assessed in ED including measurement of CK to detect RM due to long immobility early and avoid acute renal failure. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Edwards A.,Brasenose College | Edwards A.,University of Oxford | Bowen M.,Midlands Fertility Service
Medicine (United Kingdom) | Year: 2014

Vulval pain is a relatively common but poorly recognized condition which affects women of all ages, races and backgrounds. It should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis in a number of gynaecological presentations including superficial dyspareunia, persistent/recurrent candida and chronic vulval soreness. The diagnosis is more likely in patients with normal appearances of the vulva and poor responses to treatments that are usually effective. It is an important diagnosis to remember because it is often made late, after months and sometimes years of symptoms. For some women it is so bad that it stops them working, exercising and running their daily lives. Despite its potentially crippling effects, very little quality research has been undertaken and even achieving a diagnosis can take years. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Frost T.D.G.,Lincoln College | Sinha D.,Brasenose College | Gilbert B.J.,Green Templeton College
Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine | Year: 2014

When an individual facing intractable pain is given an estimate of a few months to live, does hastening death become a viable and legitimate alternative for willing patients? Has the time come for physicians to do away with the traditional notion of healthcare as maintaining or improving physical and mental health, and instead accept their own limitations by facilitating death when requested? The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge held the 2013 Varsity Medical Debate on the motion " This House Would Legalise Assisted Dying" This article summarises the key arguments developed over the course of the debate. We will explore how assisted dying can affect both the patient and doctor; the nature of consent and limits of autonomy; the effects on society; the viability of a proposed model; and, perhaps most importantly, the potential need for the practice within our current medico-legal framework. © 2014 Frost et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Boyd C.A.R.,Brasenose College
Placenta | Year: 2013

The placenta must act as a surrogate lung, gastrointestinal tract and kidney for the fetus as well as acting as an endocrine gland necessary for the maintenance of a successful pregnancy: to achieve this, to what extent does the trophoblast necessarily share a similar epithelial phenotype? Here I review from a historical and a contemporary perspective some relevant studies with an emphasis on the similarities and differences between small intestinal and trophoblast biology. Certain physiological, structural and cell biological similarities are striking. Source

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