Karlstad, Sweden
Karlstad, Sweden

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Ingason H.,SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden | Li Y.Z.,SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden | Appel G.,Swedish Transport Administration | Lundstrom U.,Swedish Transport Administration | Becker C.,Brandskyddslaget AB
Fire Technology | Year: 2015

This paper presents the main results of six large scale fixed fire fighting system tests that were carried out in the Runehamar tunnel in September 2013. It describes the background and the performance of the system. The main fire load consisted of 420 standardized wood pallets and a target consisting of a pile of 21 wood pallets placed 5 m from the rear end of the main fire load. The purpose was to investigate possible fire spread. The water spray system is a deluge zone system delivering 10 mm/min in the activated zone. The detection system was simulated with use of thermocouple in the tunnel ceiling. The alarm was registered when the ceiling gas temperature was 141°C. After alarm was obtained the system was activated manually after a given delay time that was varied in the tests. The heat release rates in tests with fire suppression were reduced to 20–45 MW compared to 100 MW estimated for a free-burn test or 75 MW in test 6 with a failure of activation. Fire spread to the target was prevented after fire suppression. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Sandstrom J.,Lulea University of Technology | Sandstrom J.,Brandskyddslaget AB | Cheng X.,Lulea University of Technology | Veljkovic M.,Lulea University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Fire Safety Science | Year: 2011

There are numerous methods in structural fire safety engineering to assess a time-temperature input for structural calculations in fire enclosures but there is very little on design fires for CFD calculations. This study is an attempt to explore a simpler form of design fire. The simplified approach consists of two main features, a travelling behaviour and a heat release rate specified by the user. © 2011 INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR FIRE SAFETY SCIENCE.

Lena K.,MTO Sakerhet AB | Kristin A.,Brandskyddslaget AB | Staffan B.,Brandskyddslaget AB | Sara W.,Brandskyddslaget AB | Elena S.,Elena Sire Architect AB
Fire Technology | Year: 2012

An exploratory focus group study of people with different types of disabilities, e. g. mobility, visual and auditory, was carried out to explore how evacuation safety in historical buildings can be improved for people with various disabilities. Accounts of real life experiences on how well evacuation routes in historical buildings are adapted to people with different types of disabilities, as well as suggestions for safety enhancing measures, were collected. Some examples of reported problems were level differences on the way to and in evacuation routes for people with mobility impairments. Other examples were problems with orientation for people with visual disabilities and problems with detecting the evacuation alarm signal for people with auditory disabilities. In general the participants expressed different problems and needs depending on their type of disability. A common view amongst all the participants were that organizational parameters concerning evacuation of people with disabilities have to be improved. One conclusion from the study was that there are shortcomings in the physical environment as well as in the organization of evacuation in historical buildings today. This means that emergency evacuation safety must be properly focused on when improving accessibility in historical buildings. Measures must be taken to address the different needs of people with various types of disabilities as well as to make improvements for all user groups. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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