Brandon, Canada
Brandon, Canada

Brandon University is a Canadian university located in the city of Brandon, Manitoba, with an enrollment of 2940 full-time and part-time undergraduate and graduate students. The current location was founded on July 13, 1899, as Brandon College as a Baptist institution. It was chartered as a university by then President Dr. John E. Robbins on June 5, 1967. The enabling legislation is the Brandon University Act The university is a member of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada and the Association of Commonwealth Universities , the Canadian University Society for Intercollegiate Debate and a member of Canadian Interuniversity Sport. Brandon University has the smallest class sizes in Canada for first and second year students, and the second smallest class sizes in third and fourth year class . In the 2013 Macleans rankings of primarily undergraduate universities in Canada, Brandon University was ranked 16th out of 19. The university press, The Quill, is a member of CUP. Wikipedia.

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Kothes R.,National Research Council Canada | Foster T.,Brandon University
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2012

CTB109 is one of only three Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) known to harbor an anomalous X-ray pulsar or magnetar. That makes this SNR an object of great importance and a prime target for high-energy astrophysics studies. Those studies rely heavily on the assumed distance to CTB109. There have been three major distance determinations over the last decade, all of which report completely different results. While chaotic distance determinations in the literature are not uncommon for SNRs as a class of object, the wild discrepancy in the distance to CTB109 makes it especially important to revisit and firmly resolve once and for all. In this Letter we bring to bear all available observational information and present a synthesis of evidence that consistently locates CTB109 within or close to the Perseus arm spiral shock, at a distance of 3.2±0.2kpc. © 2012. National Research Council Canada. All rights reserved.

Fu W.-J.,Brandon University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

Effects of an external magnetic field on the fluctuations of quark number, fluctuations, and correlations of conserved charges, including baryon number, electric charge, and strangeness, are studied in the 2+1 flavor Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We find that a magnetic field increases fluctuations and correlations in the regime of chiral crossover. It makes the transition of quadratic fluctuations more abrupt, and the peak structure of quartic fluctuations more pronounced. Our calculations indicate that χ4B/χ2B, χ4Q/χ2Q, and χ11BQ are very sensitive to the external magnetic field and can possibly be used for probes for the strong magnetic field produced in the early stage of noncentral collisions. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Fu W.-J.,Brandon University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

Within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model the temperature dependence of the shear viscosity is calculated to the first nontrivial order in the 1/Nc expansion with Φ-derivable approximations. The two-particle irreducible effective action is computed to next-to-leading order, from which the integral equations for the 3- and 4-point vertices are obtained. These sum infinite sets of diagrams contributing to the shear viscosity at the same order in the 1/Nc expansion. We find that the shear viscosity decreases rapidly when the chiral crossover is approached. Comparing with the hadron phase, the quark-gluon plasma phase has a low shear viscosity, which is consistent with the measurements. The ratio of the shear viscosity to entropy density is also calculated. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Carrington M.E.,Brandon University | Carrington M.E.,Winnipeg Institute for Theoretical Physics
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

In this paper we derive a hierarchy of integral equations from the four-particle-irreducible effective action which have the form of Bethe-Salpeter equations. We show that the vertex functions defined by these equations can be used to truncate the exact renormalization-group flow equations. This truncation has the property that the flow is a total derivative with respect to the flow parameter. We also show that the truncation is equivalent to solving the n-particle-irreducible equations of motion. This result establishes a direct connection between two nonperturbative methods. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Rombough P.,Brandon University
Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology | Year: 2011

Embryos typically operate under much tighter energy constraints than older animals. This has had a profound impact on how energy is stored, mobilized and partitioned. The result is sometimes quite different ways of doing things. Growth, in particular, is a much more important activity during development. Compared with adults, specific growth rates (g) are extremely high (≥150%day -1 for some fish). Production efficiencies are also much higher, particularly for early stages where values of 80-90% are not uncommon. Higher production efficiencies are possible, in part, because of lower unit costs at high g. Unlike in adults, the unit cost of growth does not appear to be fixed during early life. Energy also tends to be partitioned in a different manner, with compensatory partitioning being much more important during early life. Other differences include much higher routine metabolic intensities, smaller aerobic scopes and approximately isometric scaling of routine metabolism. The implications for ontogenetic growth models are discussed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Sunasee R.,Brandon University | Narain R.,University of Alberta
Macromolecular Bioscience | Year: 2013

With advances in polymerization techniques as well as selective chemical modification of carbohydrates, glycopolymers and glyco-nanoparticles are emerging as an important class of materials with tailored properties or novel nanotechnology-based platforms for a number of applications. The field of the so-called glyco-nanotechnology is starting to show some promises for future clinical applications. Glyco-nanoparticles, due to their versatile nature, could offer a platform for the design of carbohydrate-based vaccines and possibly allow the development of new single-dose vaccines in disease areas of unmet need. This paper surveys the emerging roles of carbohydrate-based polymeric and nanomaterials for biomolecular recognition processes and vaccine development. The emerging roles of carbohydrate-based polymeric and nanomaterials for biomolecular recognition processes and vaccine development are described. These nanosize materials with well-defined structures and high biocompatibility are demonstrated to be of significant interest in many biological processes. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Ardelli B.F.,Brandon University
Parasitology International | Year: 2013

The completion of a number of nematode genomes has provided significant information on ABC systems in these organisms. Nematodes have more ABC systems genes and greater diversity than do mammalian species. Class 1 and class 2 ABC systems, more commonly known as ABC transporters, are present. As in other organisms, nematode ABC systems are characterized by a highly conserved ATP-binding domain (ABC_2) and a less conserved transmembrane domain (ABC_TM1/TM1F). Studies of drug resistance in nematodes have suggested that ABC transporters are part of the resistance mechanism. Evidence in support of this has been obtained from genetic studies where an association between anthelmintic selection and ABC transporters was shown by comparisons between unselected and drug selected, or resistant, populations of parasitic nematodes. In drug resistant populations, genetic polymorphism and diversity, genotype patterns, and linkage disequilibrium were disrupted. Multidrug resistance (MDR) reversing agents that inhibit ABC function improve efficacy in sensitive nematode populations and restore sensitivity in resistant populations. Similar to the situation in clinical oncology, overexpression of ABC systems occurs in drug resistant and sensitive populations following drug exposure, particularly those in the P-glycoprotein (PGP) subfamily. Deletion or disruption of ABC genes, particularly PGP and the multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP), increases sensitivity to some drugs, particularly ivermectin. These studies provide evidence that ABC transporters play a role in drug action and resistance in nematodes. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Eberle J.J.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Greenwood D.R.,Brandon University
Bulletin of the Geological Society of America | Year: 2012

Early-middle Eocene (ca. 53-38 Ma) sediments of the Eureka Sound Group in Can ada's Arctic Archipelago preserve evidence of lush mixed conifer-broadleaf rain forests, inhabited at times by alligators, turtles, and diverse mammals, including primates, tapirs, brontotheres, and hippo-like Coryphodon. This biota reflects a greenhouse world, offering a climatic and ecologic deep time analog of a mild ice-free Arctic that may be our best means to predict what is in store for the future Arctic if current climate change goes unchecked. In our review of the early-middle Eocene Arctic flora and vertebrate fauna, we place the Arctic fossil localities in historic, geographic, and stratigraphic context, and we provide an integrated synthesis and discussion of the paleobiology and paleo ecology of these Eocene Arctic forests and their vertebrate inhabitants. The abundance and diversity of tapirs and plagiomenids (both rare elements in midlatitude faunas), and the absence of artiodactyls, early horses, and the hyopsodontid "condylarth"Hyopsodus (well represented at midlatitude localities) are peculiar to the Eocene Arctic. The Eocene Arctic macro floras reveal a forested landscape analogous to the swamp-cypress and broadleaf floodplain forests of the modern southeastern United States. Multiple climate proxies indicate a mild temperate early-middle Eocene Arctic with winter temperatures at or just above freezing and summer temperatures of 20 °C (or higher), and high precipitation. At times, this high precipitation resulted in fresh water discharge into a nearly enclosed Arctic Ocean basin, sufficient to cause surface freshening of the Arctic Ocean, supporting mats of the floating fern Azolla. Fluctuating Arctic Ocean sea level due to freshwater inputs as well as tectonics produced temporary land bridges, allowing land plants and animals to disperse between North America and both Europe and Asia. © 2012 Geological Society of America.

Richards J.P.,University of Alberta | Mumin A.H.,Brandon University
Geology | Year: 2013

Iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits formed by magmatic-hydrothermal fluids (MHIOCG) share many similarities with, but have important differences from, porphyry Cu ± Mo ± Au (porphyry) deposits: MH-IOCG deposits predominantly occur in Precambrian rocks, are Fe oxide rich, and have volumetrically extensive high-temperature alteration zones, whereas porphyry deposits occur almost exclusively in Phanerozoic rocks, are Fe sulfide rich, and have narrower high-temperature alteration zones. We propose that these deposit types are linked by common subduction-modified magmatic sources, but that secular changes in oceanic sulfate content and geothermal gradients at the end of the Precambrian caused a transition from the predominance of S-poor arc magmas and associated S-poor MH-IOCG systems, to S-rich arc magmas and associated S-rich porphyry deposits in the Phanerozoic. Phanerozoic MH-IOCG and rare Precambrian porphyry deposits are explained by local or periodic fluctuations in oceanic oxidation state and sulfate content, or remobilization of previously subduction-modified lithosphere in post-subduction tectonic settings. © 2013 Geological Society of America.

The government of Canada has declared high-speed internet as a basic need alongside utilities such as electricity and clean water, joining the handful of countries that have previously made the distinction. The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission, or CRTC, after making the declaration, is now looking to provide an unlimited data plan to all of the country's citizens. With Canada's declaration of high-speed internet as a basic necessity, it joins the United States, Finland, Israel, Malta, Switzerland, and Spain as the only countries that have done so. The move signals that the Canadian government will now be looking to provide accessibility to high-speed internet across the country, and presumably, to also make the service more affordable so that it can be better enjoyed by its citizens. The CRTC has made the lofty goal of providing an unlimited data plan to all Canadians, with the internet connection to offer a minimum download speed of 50 Mbps and a minimum upload speed of 10 Mbps by 2021. To achieve the target, the CRTC said that it will be making an investment of up to $750 million, in addition to the funding that will be provided by current programs of the Canadian government. The work required to accomplish the goal, however, is massive. The government of Canada wants the latest mobile wireless technology made available to all homes and offices, and along major roads. The fund of the CRTC will help projects that will be launched for the cause across the country, particularly in the regions where internet access infrastructure is not well developed or have not yet been built. Just one day after the CRTC's labelling of the internet as a basic telecommunications service, a study was released to show one of the challenges that Canada will face in bringing a 50 Mbps internet connection to all citizens. According to the study, which was conducted by Brandon University's Rural Development Institute, there are many small pockets in Canada's southern Manitoba where internet infrastructure is severely lacking. The report claims that there are even some areas where citizens are still on dial-up internet connections. Even in the other countries where the internet has been declared as a basic service, the propagation of high-speed internet to their citizens have often been challenged by factors such as high costs, poor service, and intensifying questions on net neutrality. Canada will likely suffer through all these challenges as well, and we will soon find out how the government responds to them and if it can keep its promise of a 50 Mbps internet connection for citizens by 2021. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.

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