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Balasubramanian P.M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Conner R.L.,Morden Research Station | McLaren D.L.,Brandon Research Center | Chatterton S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Hou A.,Morden Research Station
Canadian Journal of Plant Science | Year: 2014

White mould, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is a constraint on dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production across Canada. Under high disease pressure, dry bean cultivars succumb to the disease resulting in a severe loss of seed yield and quality. Disease development is highly influenced by environmental conditions. In the absence of complete resistance to white mould, dry bean cultivars with both field resistance (avoidance) and physiological resistance would be preferred by growers in order to reduce disease risk and production costs. The objective of this study was to characterize select dry bean genotypes for field resistance to white mould in inoculated disease nurseries, and physiological resistance in a controlled environment. White mould ratings ranged from moderately susceptible to susceptible. Dry bean cultivars lacked both field resistance and physiological resistance. Germplasm lines I9365-25, G122, A 195 and I9635-31 had low disease severity ratings (5.1 to 5.6 at 26 d after inoculation using a 1 to 9 visual disease rating scale) in controlled environment indicating physiological resistance. L 192, MO162, 92BG-7 and OAC Rico also had acceptable levels of physiological resistance (severity ratings of 5.8 to 6.2 at 26 d after inoculation). G122, A 195, L 192 and MO 162 had low white mould disease incidences (16 to 25%) in the field over 4 yr indicating field resistance to white mould. These genotypes may be used as parents in the development of dry bean cultivars with enhanced resistance to white mould. Source


Bittman S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Hunt D.E.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Kowalenko C.G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Chantigny M.,Soils and Crops Research and Development Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Quality | Year: 2011

Removing solids from slurry manure helps balance nutrients to plant needs and may increase soil infiltration rate to reduce loss of ammonia. The long-term effects of applying the separated liquid fraction (SLF) of dairy slurry with surface banding applicators are not well known. This 6-yr study compared the yield, N recovery, and stand persistence of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) receiving SLF at 300 (SLF300) and 400 (SLF400) kg ha-1 yr-1 of total ammoniacal N (TAN); whole dairy slurry (WS) at 200 (WS200), 300 (WS300), and 400 (WS400) kg TAN ha-1 yr-1; and mineral fertilizer at 300 kg N ha-1 yr-1. The slurries were applied four times per year by surface banding, a technique that reduces ammonia emission and canopy contamination. Grass yield and N uptake were significantly higher for SLF300 than WS300 at equivalent rates of TAN. At similar total N, yield and N uptake were much greater for SLF than WS (2 Mg DM ha-1 and 75 kg N ha-1, respectively). Apparent total N recovery was 63% greater for SLF300 than WS300 due to less ammonia loss and less immobile N. The apparent recovery of total N was 31% higher for Fert300 than for SLF300. Yield and N uptake for SLF300 and WS300 were similar in Harvests 1 and 4, but SLF had higher values under hot and dry conditions in Harvests 2 and 3. Using SLF rather than WS will increase crop yield and allow higher application volumes near barns, which will reduce hauling costs. Copyright © 2011 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved. Source


Ma Y.,University of Tasmania | Zhu M.,University of Tasmania | Zhu M.,Brandon Research Center | Shabala L.,University of Tasmania | And 2 more authors.
Plant and Cell Physiology | Year: 2016

Aluminum (Al) is prevalent in soils, but Al toxicity is manifested only under acid conditions. It causes severe damages to the root system. Short-term waterlogging stress can occur simultaneously with Al toxicity in areas with high rainfall or an inappropriate irrigation pattern. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the most Al-sensitive small-grained cereals. In this work, we have investigated effects of short-term treatments with hypoxia and phenolic acid (two major constraints in waterlogged soils) on root sensitivity to low-pH and Al stresses. We showed that hypoxia-primed roots maintained higher cell viability when exposed to low-pH/Al stress, in both elongation and mature root zones, and possessed superior ability to retain K+ in response to low-pH/Al stresses. These priming effects were not related to higher H+-ATPase activity and better membrane potential maintenance, and could not be explained by the increased expression levels of HvHAK1, which mediates high-affinity K+ uptake in roots. Instead, hypoxia-conditioned roots were significantly less sensitive to H2O2 treatment, indicated by the 10-fold reduction in the magnitude of K+ efflux changes. This suggested that roots pre-treated with hypoxia desensitized reactive oxygen species (ROS)-inducible K+ efflux channels in root epidermis, most probably via enhanced antioxidative capacity. A possible role for Ca2+ in stressinduced ROS signaling pathways is also discussed. Overall, our results report, for the first time, the phenomenon of cross-protection between hypoxia and low-pH/Al stresses, and causally link it to the cell's ability to maintain cytosolic K+ homeostasis. © The Author 2015. Source


Bittman S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Liu A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Hunt D.E.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Kowalenko C.G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Quality | Year: 2012

Efficient use of manure nutrients by crops is necessary to minimize losses to the environment. This field study examined the possibility of replacing side-banded mineral P with precision-placed high-P sludge (6.2-11.0% dry matter) obtained after settling dairy manure slurry. The sludge was injected at about 30 kg P ha -1 (36.0-51.2 m 3 ha -1) into the soil at corn row spacing, and the corn was planted 5, 10, and 15 cm beside the injection furrow. Controls included no added P and side-banded commercial P fertilizer. The treatments were tested on corn with low and high root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM). The study showed that sludge did not impede AM root colonization, corn germination, or seedling growth. Corn plants with both high and low levels of AM colonization responded to the sludge from the three-leaf stage and showed the greatest benefit at the six-leaf stage. Corn responded more to sludge placed at 5 than at 15 cm from the corn rows, whereas the response at the 10-cm spacing was intermediate. There was little difference in seedling growth or final harvest parameters between the side-banded fertilizer P and the 5-cm sludge treatment. The results show a new way to use manure nutrients, namely precision-placement sludge for corn. This may obviate the need for chemical fertilizers for improving farm nutrient balances. Other anticipated benefits are less energy use for hauling and injection of the sludge fraction and reduced risk of nutrient loss by runoff and volatilization (ammonia) and nuisance odors due to injection. © 2012 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. Source


Kumar S.,University of Manitoba | Kumar S.,Brandon Research Center | Kumar S.,Brandon Research Center | You F.M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 5 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2015

Key message: The combined SSR-SNP map and 20 QTL for agronomic and quality traits will assist in marker assisted breeding as well as map-based cloning of key genes in linseed. Abstract: Flax is an important nutraceutical crop mostly because it is a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidant compounds. Canada is the largest producer and exporter of oilseed flax (or linseed), creating a growing need to improve crop productivity and quality. In this study, a genetic map was constructed based on selected 329 single nucleotide polymorphic markers and 362 simple sequence repeat markers using a recombinant inbred line population of 243 individuals from a cross between the Canadian varieties CDC Bethune and Macbeth. The genetic map consisted of 15 linkage groups comprising 691 markers with an average marker density of one marker every 1.9 cM. A total of 20 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified corresponding to 14 traits. Three QTL each for oleic acid and stearic acid, two QTL each for linoleic acid and iodine value and one each for palmitic acid, linolenic acid, oil content, seed protein, cell wall, straw weight, thousand seed weight, seeds per boll, yield and days to maturity were identified. The QTL for cell wall, straw weight, seeds per boll, yield and days to maturity all co-located on linkage group 4. Analysis of the candidate gene regions underlying the QTL identified proteins involved in cell wall and fibre synthesis, fatty acid biosynthesis as well as their metabolism and yield component traits. This study provides the foundation for assisting in map-based cloning of the QTL and marker assisted selection of a wide range of quality and agronomic traits in linseed and potentially fibre flax. © 2015, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada as represented by the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food. Source

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