Brandeis University is an American private research university with a liberal arts focus. It is located in Waltham, Massachusetts, 9 miles west of Boston. The university has an enrollment of approximately 3,600 undergraduate and 2,200 graduate students. It was tied for 32nd among national universities in the United States in U.S. News & World Report 's 2014 rankings. Forbes listed Brandeis University as number 51 among all national universities and liberal arts colleges combined in 2013.Brandeis was founded in 1948 as a nonsectarian Jewish community-sponsored coeducational institution on the site of the former Middlesex University. The university is named for Louis Brandeis , the first Jewish Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Wikipedia.
Brandeis University | Date: 2015-04-09
Disclosed are peptides that contain up to about 35 amino acids, including a plurality of aromatic amino acid residues and either (i) an amino acid residue that is phosphorylated or sulfated, or (ii) an amino acid comprising an ester-moiety linked via peptide bond, or both (i) and (ii), wherein the peptide is capable of self-assembly to form nanofibrils in the presence of an enzyme that hydrolyzes the phosphate group, the sulfate group, or the ester-moiety. These peptides are enzymatically responsive hydrogelators, and they can be used to form pericellular hydrogels/nanofibrils upon exposure to target cells that secrete or express a surface bound ectoenzyme having hydrolase activity suitable to induce peptide gelation. These materials, and compositions containing the same, can be used for in vitro and in vivo cellular imaging, treating cancerous conditions, collecting a secretome from a cell upon which the pericellular hydrogels/nanofibrils form, and screening the collected secretome.
Brandeis University | Date: 2017-03-01
Provided herein are methods for detecting and identifying strains of mycobacteria, and compositions and kits for performing such methods. In particular, nucleic acid amplification and fluorescence detection methods are provided for the detection and differentiation of mycobacteria based on, for example, pathogenicity, species, and antibiotic resistance or sensitivity. Compositions and methods are provided herein to identify and differentiate mycobacteria in mixtures of different mycobacteria and mycobacteria and non-mycobacteria.
Brandeis University | Date: 2015-04-09
The invention relates to an enzymatically responsive product that includes an amino acid residue conjugated to a magnetic particle, wherein the amino acid residue is phosphorylated or sulfated or comprises an ester-moiety linked via peptide bond. Compositions containing the enzymatically responsive product, and the use thereof for separating distinct types of mammalian cells (e.g., cancer cells from normal cells), for treating a cancerous condition, and imaging cancer cells are also disclosed.
Brandeis University | Date: 2015-07-21
Disclosed are small molecule inhibitors of deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), and methods of using them. Certain compounds are selective for particular ubiquitin-specific proteases (USPs).
Brandeis University | Date: 2017-07-26
Disclosed herein is a nucleic acid amplification process referred to as Linear-Expo- Linear Polymerase Chain Reaction (LEL-PCR).
Friedman L.J.,Brandeis University |
Gelles J.,Brandeis University
Cell | Year: 2012
Understanding the pathway and kinetic mechanisms of transcription initiation is essential for quantitative understanding of gene regulation, but initiation is a multistep process, the features of which can be obscured in bulk analysis. We used a multiwavelength single-molecule fluorescence colocalization approach, CoSMoS, to define the initiation pathway at an activator-dependent bacterial σ 54 promoter that recapitulates characteristic features of eukaryotic promoters activated by enhancer binding proteins. The experiments kinetically characterize all major steps of the initiation process, revealing heretofore unknown features, including reversible formation of two closed complexes with greatly differing stabilities, multiple attempts for each successful formation of an open complex, and efficient release of σ 54 from the polymerase core at the start of transcript synthesis. Open complexes are committed to transcription, suggesting that regulation likely targets earlier steps in the mechanism. CoSMoS is a powerful, generally applicable method to elucidate the mechanisms of transcription and other multistep biochemical processes. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Turrigiano G.,Brandeis University
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology | Year: 2012
Neural circuits must maintain stable function in the face of many plastic challenges, including changes in synapse number and strength, during learning and development. Recentwork has shown that these destabilizing influences are counterbalanced by homeostatic plasticity mechanisms that act to stabilize neuronal and circuit activity. One such mechanism is synaptic scaling, which allows neurons to detect changes in their own firing rates through a set of calcium-dependent sensors that then regulate receptor trafficking to increase or decrease the accumulation of glutamate receptors at synaptic sites. Additional homeostatic mechanisms may allow local changes in synaptic activation to generate local synaptic adaptations, and network-wide changes in activity to generate network-wide adjustments in the balance between excitation and inhibition. The signaling pathways underlying these various forms of homeostatic plasticity are currently under intense scrutiny, and although dozens of molecular pathways have now been implicated in homeostatic plasticity, a clear picture of how homeostatic feedback is structured at the molecular level has not yet emerged. On a functional level, neuronal networks likely use this complex set of regulatory mechanisms to achieve homeostasis over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. © 2011 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Haber J.E.,Brandeis University
Genetics | Year: 2012
Mating type in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is determined by two nonhomologous alleles, MATa and MATα. These sequences encode regulators of the two different haploid mating types and of the diploids formed by their conjugation. Analysis of the MATa1, MATα1, and MATα2 alleles provided one of the earliest models of cell-type specification by transcriptional activators and repressors. Remarkably, homothallic yeast cells can switch their mating type as often as every generation by a highly choreographed, site-specific homologous recombination event that replaces one MAT allele with different DNA sequences encoding the opposite MAT allele. This replacement process involves the participation of two intact but unexpressed copies of mating-type information at the heterochromatic loci, HMLa and HMRa, which are located at opposite ends of the same chromosome-encoding MAT. The study of MAT switching has yielded important insights into the control of cell lineage, the silencing of gene expression, the formation of heterochromatin, and the regulation of accessibility of the donor sequences. Real-time analysis of MAT switching has provided the most detailed description of the molecular events that occur during the homologous recombinational repair of a programmed double-strand chromosome break. © 2012 by the Genetics Society of America.
Rohleder N.,Brandeis University
Psychosomatic Medicine | Year: 2014
Psychosocial stress is an important precursor of disease and reduced quality of life in humans. The biological pathways between stress exposure and pathophysiological processes underlying disease have received substantial scientific attention, although the roles of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system remain insufficiently understood. Recent attention has focused on chronic systemic low-grade inflammation as a promising pathway because elevated inflammation often accompanies chronic psychosocial distress. These alterations of inflammatory activity play a key role in the pathophysiology of diseases that are adversely affected by chronic distress, such as cardiovascular disease. Transient increases in systemic inflammation are observed in response to acute psychosocial stress, with larger responses among individuals reporting adverse psychosocial states or conditions such as depression, lower self-esteem, or lower self-compassion. Recent evidence shows that lower subjective social status and perceived purpose in life are associated with sensitization of inflammatory stress responses to repeated stress exposure. The aims of this selective review article are to summarize current knowledge of the role of acute and chronic psychosocial stress on low-grade inflammation in humans and to discuss potential relationships between inflammatory responses to acute psychosocial stress and long-term development of disease. Copyright © 2014 by the American Psychosomatic Society.
Sengupta P.,Brandeis University
Current Opinion in Neurobiology | Year: 2013
Feeding history and the presence of food dramatically alter chemosensory behaviors. Recent results indicate that internal nutritional state can gate peripheral gustatory and olfactory sensory responses to affect behavior. Focusing primarily on recent work in C. elegans and Drosophila, I describe the neuromodulatory mechanisms that translate feeding state information into changes in chemosensory neuron response properties and behavioral output. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.