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Hamburg, Germany

Zhao C.,University of Rochester | Xiu Y.,University of Rochester | Ashton J.,University of Rochester | Xing L.,University of Rochester | And 4 more authors.
Stem Cells | Year: 2012

RelB and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB2) are the main effectors of NF-κB noncanonical signaling and play critical roles in many physiological processes. However, their role in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) maintenance has not been characterized. To investigate this, we generated RelB/NF-κB2 double-knockout (dKO) mice and found that dKO HSPCs have profoundly impaired engraftment and self-renewal activity after transplantation into wild-type recipients. Transplantation of wild-type bone marrow cells into dKO mice to assess the role of the dKO microenvironment showed that wild-type HSPCs cycled more rapidly, were more abundant, and had developmental aberrancies: increased myeloid and decreased lymphoid lineages, similar to dKO HSPCs. Notably, when these wild-type cells were returned to normal hosts, these phenotypic changes were reversed, indicating a potent but transient phenotype conferred by the dKO microenvironment. However, dKO bone marrow stromal cell numbers were reduced, and bone-lining niche cells supported less HSPC expansion than controls. Furthermore, increased dKO HSPC proliferation was associated with impaired expression of niche adhesion molecules by bone-lining cells and increased inflammatory cytokine expression by bone marrow cells. Thus, RelB/NF-κB2 signaling positively and intrinsically regulates HSPC self-renewal and maintains stromal/osteoblastic niches and negatively and extrinsically regulates HSPC expansion and lineage commitment through the marrow microenvironment. © AlphaMed Press. Source

Kadooka Y.,Brand Science Institute
The British journal of nutrition | Year: 2013

Consumption of fermented milk (FM) containing a probiotic, Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055), previously showed a reduction in abdominal adiposity in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) using FM with 10(8) colony-forming units (cfu) of LG2055/g. However, whether the effectiveness is observed at lower concentrations, the recommended minimum or intermediate levels of probiotics (10(6) or 10(7) cfu/g, respectively), remains to be examined. A multi-centre, double-blind, parallel-group RCT was conducted using 210 healthy Japanese adults with large visceral fat areas (80·2 - 187·8 cm(2)). They were balanced for their baseline characteristics and randomly assigned to three groups receiving FM containing 10(7), 10(6) or 0 (control) cfu LG2055/g of FM, and were asked to consume 200 g FM/d for 12 weeks. Abdominal visceral fat areas, which were determined by computed tomography, at week 12, changed from baseline by an average of -8·5 % (95 % CI -11·9, -5·1; P< 0·01) in the 10(7) dose group, and by -8·2 % (95 % CI -10·8, -5·7; P< 0·01) in the 10(6) dose group. Other measures including BMI, waist and hip circumferences, and body fat mass were also significantly decreased from baseline at week 12 in both groups; interestingly, the cessation of taking FM for 4 weeks attenuated these effects. In the control group, none of these parameters significantly decreased from baseline. These findings demonstrate that consumption of LG2055 at doses as low as the order of 10(8) cfu/d exhibited a significant lowering effect on abdominal adiposity, and suggest that constant consumption might be needed to maintain the effect. Source

Wakai M.,Michigan State University | Wakai M.,Brand Science Institute | Almenar E.,Michigan State University
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2015

Purpose of research: Whey protein isolate (WPI) coated plastics and laminates have potential for food packaging applications. Montmorillonite (MMT) addition to the WPI matrix for improved WPI material for such applications was investigated. The effect of the presence of MMT on the solubility of WPI films in food model systems with different compositions and pH, and on the morphology, mechanical properties, and swelling of the films was investigated. Results: The presence of MMT in the WPI films significantly reduced solids migration and altered the properties of the WPI films. The level of reduction was dependent on both pH and composition of the food model system. The lowest migration occurred in the acidic solutions due to a conformational change in the whey proteins and the resulting reduction of protein migration. This conformational change was pH dependent with lesser protein migration with lower pH due to electrostatic interactions between WPI and MMT. The swelling of the WPI film was reduced by 35% with a change in pH of the food model system from 6.5 to 2.85, regardless of the presence of MMT. Further lowering of the pH of the food model system led to a steady increase of swelling in the films but this effect was less pronounced in the case of MMT/WPI film due to electrostatic interactions between WPI and MMT. The presence of MMT also decreased the elongation at break and increased the tensile strength and surface roughness of the WPI film. Conclusions: The addition of MMT in the WPI matrix significantly reduces solubility and alters properties of the WPI films. The magnitude of change depends on the specific food characteristics including both, composition and pH. MMT and an external acidic stimulus can be used to improve the WPI film for food packaging applications. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Kimura Y.,Ehime University | Sumiyoshi M.,Ehime University | Kobayashi T.,Brand Science Institute
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

Whey proteins or peptides exhibit various actions, including an antioxidant action, an anticancer action, and a protectiveaction against childhood asthma and atopic syndrome. The effects of orally administered whey peptides (WPs) on chronicultraviolet B (UVB) radiation-induced cutaneous changes, including changes in cutaneous thickness, elasticity, wrinkleformation, etc., have not been examined. In this study, we studied the preventive effects of WPs on cutaneous aginginduced by chronic UVB irradiation in melanin-possessing male hairless mice (HRM). UVB (36-180 mJ/cm2) was irradiatedto the dorsal area for 17 wk in HRM, and the measurements of cutaneous thickness and elasticity in UVB irradiated micewere performed every week. WPs (200 and 400 mg/kg, twice daily) were administered orally for 17 wk. WPs inhibited theincrease in cutaneous thickness, wrinkle formation, and melanin granules and the reduction in cutaneous elasticityassociated with photoaging. Furthermore, it has been reported that UVB irradiation-induced skin aging is closelyassociated with the increase in expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF),Ki-67-, and 8-hydroxy-2#-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)-positive cells. WPs also prevented increases in the expression ofMMP-2 and pro-MMP-9, VEGF, and Ki-67- and 8-OHdG-positive cells induced by chronic UVB irradiation. It was found thatWPs prevent type IV collagen degradation, angiogenesis, proliferation, and DNA damage caused by UVB irradiation.Overall, these results demonstrate the considerable benefit ofWPs for protection against solar UV-irradiated skin agingas a supplemental nutrient. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition. Source

Hanazawa T.,Brand Science Institute | Murray B.S.,University of Leeds
Langmuir | Year: 2013

The phase separation of a model system consisting of sodium caseinate + xanthan ± a low fraction (up to 3 wt %) of an oil-in-water emulsion was studied at room temperature (20-25 C). The composition of the oil phase was either 100 wt % n-tetradecane (TD); 50% TD + 50% eicosane (EC) or 100% EC. The droplets in these three "emulsions" were therefore totally liquid, partially solid, and totally solid, respectively. In the presence of 22 mM CaCl2, the mixed TD+EC droplets were most effective at inhibiting phase separation, while the EC emulsions could not prevent phase separation at all. At 32 mM CaCl2 the emulsions tended to promote phase separation, possibly due to enhanced calcium ion-induced droplet aggregation. The apparent interfacial viscosity (ηi) between two macroscopically separated phases was also measured. In the presence of the semisolid mixed droplets ηi = 25 mN s m-1, significantly higher than ηi with the pure (liquid) TD droplets (15 mN s m-1) or with the pure solid EC droplets (12 mN s m-1) or in the absence of droplets (<3 mN s m-1). Confocal microscopy showed that the microstructure of the phase separating regions also depended upon the composition of the oil droplets, and it is tentatively suggested that the more marked effects of the mixed emulsion droplets were due to them forming a stronger network at the interface via partial coalescence. Control of the extent of interfacial aggregation of droplets is therefore possibly one way to influence the course of phase separation in biopolymer mixtures. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

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