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Hanazawa T.,Brand Science Institute | Murray B.S.,University of Leeds
Langmuir | Year: 2013

The phase separation of a model system consisting of sodium caseinate + xanthan ± a low fraction (up to 3 wt %) of an oil-in-water emulsion was studied at room temperature (20-25 C). The composition of the oil phase was either 100 wt % n-tetradecane (TD); 50% TD + 50% eicosane (EC) or 100% EC. The droplets in these three "emulsions" were therefore totally liquid, partially solid, and totally solid, respectively. In the presence of 22 mM CaCl2, the mixed TD+EC droplets were most effective at inhibiting phase separation, while the EC emulsions could not prevent phase separation at all. At 32 mM CaCl2 the emulsions tended to promote phase separation, possibly due to enhanced calcium ion-induced droplet aggregation. The apparent interfacial viscosity (ηi) between two macroscopically separated phases was also measured. In the presence of the semisolid mixed droplets ηi = 25 mN s m-1, significantly higher than ηi with the pure (liquid) TD droplets (15 mN s m-1) or with the pure solid EC droplets (12 mN s m-1) or in the absence of droplets (<3 mN s m-1). Confocal microscopy showed that the microstructure of the phase separating regions also depended upon the composition of the oil droplets, and it is tentatively suggested that the more marked effects of the mixed emulsion droplets were due to them forming a stronger network at the interface via partial coalescence. Control of the extent of interfacial aggregation of droplets is therefore possibly one way to influence the course of phase separation in biopolymer mixtures. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Hanazawa T.,Brand Science Institute | Murray B.S.,University of Leeds
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2014

A model system consisting of sodium caseinate (SC)+xanthan±a low volume fraction of oil-in-water emulsion droplets was studied. The phase separation behaviour of xanthan+sodium caseinate was investigated as function of these two variables, followed by experiments on the same systems where oil droplets were introduced. More than 20mM [Ca2+] was needed to induce phase separation at pH 6.4 and 5.9, but at pH 5.4, phase separation occurred at as low as 5mM [Ca2+] and a lower concentration of SC or xanthan was required to induce phase separation. An increase in size of sodium caseinate aggregates is proposed as the main factor promoting phase separation. When oil droplets stabilized by sodium caseinate were added to systems containing 0.05-0.1wt.% xanthan at pH 6.4 this appeared to inhibit significantly the phase separation of the mixtures at [Ca2+]=22mM. Simple calculations showed that this effect cannot reasonably be due to excessive accumulation of protein at the droplet surfaces, which is then carried away by the droplets due to creaming. Consequently, a possible mechanism of the inhibition is accumulation of droplets at and strengthening of, the water-water interface of the caseinate-xanthan phase separating entities. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Ukibe K.,Brand Science Institute | Miyoshi M.,Brand Science Institute | Kadooka Y.,Brand Science Institute
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

Administration of Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) has been shown to prevent body weight gain and it also down-regulates the expression of the Ccl2 gene in adipose tissue in diet-induced obese mice. The CC chemokine ligand 2 has a crucial role in macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, which is known to exacerbate inflammation. However, it is not yet known how LG2055 affects the invasion of macrophages into adipose tissue. C57BL/6J male mice were fed a normal-fat diet (10 % energy fat), high-fat diet (HFD; 45 % energy fat), or HFD containing LG2055 for 12 weeks. After the feeding period, gene expression and macrophage population in adipose tissue were analysed by real-time PCR and flow cytometry, respectively. Body weight and abdominal fat weight were not altered by feeding LG2055. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the population of macrophages in adipose tissue was significantly reduced by feeding LG2055 compared with HFD only. Furthermore, the ratio of classically activated inflammatory macrophages (M1 macrophages) to total macrophages was significantly decreased in the LG2055-fed group. The expressions of Ccl2, Ccr2 and Lep were down-regulated and that of Il6, TNF and Nos2 tended to be down-regulated in adipose tissue by feeding LG2055. In addition, fasting glucose levels were significantly decreased in the LG2055-fed group. These data suggest that administration of LG2055 might attenuate inflammation, which is caused by the intake of an HFD, through the inhibition of macrophage invasion into adipose tissue. © The Authors 2015.

Kadooka Y.,Brand Science Institute
The British journal of nutrition | Year: 2013

Consumption of fermented milk (FM) containing a probiotic, Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055), previously showed a reduction in abdominal adiposity in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) using FM with 10(8) colony-forming units (cfu) of LG2055/g. However, whether the effectiveness is observed at lower concentrations, the recommended minimum or intermediate levels of probiotics (10(6) or 10(7) cfu/g, respectively), remains to be examined. A multi-centre, double-blind, parallel-group RCT was conducted using 210 healthy Japanese adults with large visceral fat areas (80·2 - 187·8 cm(2)). They were balanced for their baseline characteristics and randomly assigned to three groups receiving FM containing 10(7), 10(6) or 0 (control) cfu LG2055/g of FM, and were asked to consume 200 g FM/d for 12 weeks. Abdominal visceral fat areas, which were determined by computed tomography, at week 12, changed from baseline by an average of -8·5 % (95 % CI -11·9, -5·1; P< 0·01) in the 10(7) dose group, and by -8·2 % (95 % CI -10·8, -5·7; P< 0·01) in the 10(6) dose group. Other measures including BMI, waist and hip circumferences, and body fat mass were also significantly decreased from baseline at week 12 in both groups; interestingly, the cessation of taking FM for 4 weeks attenuated these effects. In the control group, none of these parameters significantly decreased from baseline. These findings demonstrate that consumption of LG2055 at doses as low as the order of 10(8) cfu/d exhibited a significant lowering effect on abdominal adiposity, and suggest that constant consumption might be needed to maintain the effect.

Ueno H.M.,Brand Science Institute | Urazono H.,Brand Science Institute | Kobayashi T.,Brand Science Institute
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

The iron-lactoferrin complex is a common food ingredient because of its iron-solubilizing capability in the presence of hydrogen carbonate ions. However, it is unclear whether the formation of a stable iron-binding complex is limited to lactoferrin. In this study, we investigated the effects of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on iron solubility and iron-catalyzed lipid oxidation in the presence of hydrogen carbonate ions. BSA could solubilize >100-fold molar equivalents of iron at neutral pH, exceeding the specific metal-binding property of BSA. This iron-solubilizing capability of BSA was impaired by thermally denaturing BSA at ≥70 C for 10 min at pH 8.5. The resulting iron-BSA complex inhibited iron-catalyzed oxidation of soybean oil in a water-in-oil emulsion measured using the Rancimat test. Our study is the first to show that BSA, like lactoferrin, forms a soluble iron-binding complex in the presence of hydrogen carbonate ions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kimura Y.,Ehime University | Sumiyoshi M.,Ehime University | Kobayashi T.,Brand Science Institute
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

Whey proteins or peptides exhibit various actions, including an antioxidant action, an anticancer action, and a protectiveaction against childhood asthma and atopic syndrome. The effects of orally administered whey peptides (WPs) on chronicultraviolet B (UVB) radiation-induced cutaneous changes, including changes in cutaneous thickness, elasticity, wrinkleformation, etc., have not been examined. In this study, we studied the preventive effects of WPs on cutaneous aginginduced by chronic UVB irradiation in melanin-possessing male hairless mice (HRM). UVB (36-180 mJ/cm2) was irradiatedto the dorsal area for 17 wk in HRM, and the measurements of cutaneous thickness and elasticity in UVB irradiated micewere performed every week. WPs (200 and 400 mg/kg, twice daily) were administered orally for 17 wk. WPs inhibited theincrease in cutaneous thickness, wrinkle formation, and melanin granules and the reduction in cutaneous elasticityassociated with photoaging. Furthermore, it has been reported that UVB irradiation-induced skin aging is closelyassociated with the increase in expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF),Ki-67-, and 8-hydroxy-2#-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)-positive cells. WPs also prevented increases in the expression ofMMP-2 and pro-MMP-9, VEGF, and Ki-67- and 8-OHdG-positive cells induced by chronic UVB irradiation. It was found thatWPs prevent type IV collagen degradation, angiogenesis, proliferation, and DNA damage caused by UVB irradiation.Overall, these results demonstrate the considerable benefit ofWPs for protection against solar UV-irradiated skin agingas a supplemental nutrient. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

Uenishi H.,Brand Science Institute | Kabuki T.,Brand Science Institute | Seto Y.,Brand Science Institute | Serizawa A.,Brand Science Institute | Nakajima H.,Brand Science Institute
International Dairy Journal | Year: 2012

A water-soluble extract of a gouda-type cheese showed dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP-4)-inhibitory activity, which should improve glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetes. With liquid chromatography, we obtained four active fractions from the water-soluble extract and analysed the constituent peptides with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Four peptides with the X-Pro-structure showed IC50 values of <200 μm β-Casein peptide residues 70-77 (β-CN f70-77; LPQNIPPL) showed the highest DPP-4-inhibitory activity, which increased during the ripening period. Glucose tolerance tests were performed in rats orally administered synthesized LPQNIPPL (30 mg 100 g-1 rat weight) with a cross-over experimental design. The post-prandial area under the blood glucose curve was significantly reduced (P < 0.02) in the LPQNIPPL-administered group compared with that in the placebo-treated group. This is the first report that has identified DPP-4-inhibitory casein-derived peptides from gouda-type cheese with an effect on plasma glucose in a rat model. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

News Article | August 23, 2010

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News Article | August 23, 2010

Germany-based Brand Science Institute, a renowned think-tank focused on brand and consumer management, has carried out a fairly extensive study on corporate social media projects over the past 7 months. Focal point of the research was a desire to understand why (most) social media projects tend to be utter failures. BSI questioned 560+ marketers representing 52 brands from some of the largest companies across 12 European countries, and poured the end results in a presentation. You can find the slides – which, admittedly, could have used just a tad more textual explanation for people to fully grasp BSI’s findings – on SlideShare, or hereunder:

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