Brains On Line BV

Groningen, Netherlands

Brains On Line BV

Groningen, Netherlands
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Kleijn J.,University of Groningen | Cremers T.I.F.H.,Brains On line BV | Hofland C.M.,Brains On line BV | Westerink B.H.C.,University of Groningen
Neuroscience Research | Year: 2011

A large percentage of depressed individuals use drugs of abuse, like cannabis. This study investigates the impact of cannabis on the pharmacological effects of the antidepressant citalopram. Using microdialysis in the prefrontal cortex of rats we monitored serotonin levels before and after cannabinoid (WIN55,212-2 or rimonabant) and citalopram administration. Stimulating CB-1 decreased the effect of citalopram on increasing serotonin levels in the prefrontal cortex. Blocking CB-1 augmented this effect of citalopram. Although repeating these experiments in a chronical setting is recommended the present results might have implication for the clinical effects of citalopram. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society.


Pera T.,University of Groningen | Zuidhof A.B.,University of Groningen | Smit M.,University of Groningen | Menzen M.H.,University of Groningen | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics | Year: 2014

Airway inflammation and remodeling are major features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), whereas pulmonary hypertension is a common comorbidity associated with a poor disease prognosis. Recent studies in animal models have indicated that increased arginase activity contributes to features of asthma, including allergeninduced airway eosinophilia and mucus hypersecretion. Although cigarette smoke and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), major risk factors for COPD, may increase arginase expression, the role of arginase in COPD is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the role of arginase in pulmonary inflammation and remodeling using an animal model of COPD. Guinea pigs were instilled intranasally with LPS or saline twice weekly for 12 weeks and pretreated by inhalation of the arginase inhibitor 2(S)-Amino-6-boronohexanoic acid (ABH) or vehicle. Repeated LPS exposure increased lung arginase activity, resulting in increased L-ornithine/L-Arginine and L-ornithine/L-citrulline ratios. Both ratios were reversed by ABH. ABH inhibited the LPS-induced increases in pulmonary IL-8, neutrophils, and goblet cells as well as airway fibrosis. Remarkably, LPS-induced right ventricular hypertrophy, indicative of pulmonary hypertension, was prevented by ABH. Strong correlations were found between arginase activity and inflammation, airway remodeling, and right ventricular hypertrophy. Increased arginase activity contributes to pulmonary inflammation, airway remodeling, and right ventricular hypertrophy in a guinea pig model of COPD, indicating therapeutic potential for arginase inhibitors in this disease.Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.


Wahono N.,University of Groningen | Qin S.,University of Groningen | Oomen P.,University of Groningen | Cremers T.I.F.,Brains Online BV | And 3 more authors.
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2012

Monitoring of extracellular brain glutamate concentrations by intracerebral biosensors is a promising approach to further investigate the role of this important neurotransmitter. However, amperometric biosensors are typically hampered by Faradaic interference caused by the presence of other electroactive species in the brain, such as ascorbic acid, dopamine, and uric acid. Various permselective membranes are often used on biosensors to prevent this. In this study we evaluated the most commonly used membranes, i.e. nafion, polyphenylenediamine, polypyrrole, polyaniline, and polynaphthol using a novel silica-based platinum electrode. First we selected the membranes with the highest sensitivity for hydrogen peroxide in vitro and an optimal selectivity against electrochemical interferents. Then we evaluated the performances of these membranes in a short lasting (3-4. h) in vivo experiment. We found that best in vitro performance was accomplished with biosensors that were protected by a poly(m-phenylenediamine) membrane deposited onto the platinum electrode by cyclic voltammetry. However, post-implantation evaluation of these membranes showed poor selectivity against dopamine. Combination with a previously applied nafion layer did not protect the sensors against acute biofouling; indeed it was even counter effective.Finally, we investigated the ability of our biosensors to monitor the effect of glutamate transport blocker DL-TBOA on modulating glutamate concentrations in the prefrontal cortex of anaesthetized rats. The optimized biosensors recorded a rapid 35-fold increase in extracellular glutamate, and are considered suitable for further exploration in vivo. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Maarsingh H.,University of Groningen | Dekkers B.G.J.,University of Groningen | Zuidhof A.B.,University of Groningen | Bos I.S.T.,University of Groningen | And 5 more authors.
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2011

Airway remodelling, characterised by increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass, subepithelial fibrosis, goblet cell hyperplasia and mucus gland hypertrophy, is a feature of chronic asthma. Increased arginase activity could contribute to these features via increased formation of polyamines and L-proline downstream of the arginase product L-ornithine, and via reduced nitric oxide synthesis. Using the specific arginase inhitibor 2(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic acid (ABH), we studied the role of arginase in airway remodelling using a guinea pig model of chronic asthma. Ovalbumin-sensitised guinea pigs were treated with ABH or PBS via inhalation before each of 12 weekly allergen or saline challenges, and indices of arginase activity, and airway remodelling, inflammation and responsiveness were studied 24 h after the final challenge. Pulmonary arginase activity of repeatedly allergen-challenged guinea pigs was increased. Allergen challenge also increased ASM mass and maximal contraction of denuded tracheal rings, which were prevented by ABH. ABH also attenuated allergen-induced pulmonary hydroxyproline (fibrosis) and putrescine, mucus gland hypertrophy, goblet cell hyperplasia, airway eosinophilia and interleukin-13, whereas an increased L-ornithine/L-citrulline ratio in the lung was normalised. Moreover, allergen-induced hyperresponsiveness of perfused tracheae was fully abrogated by ABH. These findings demonstrate that arginase is prominently involved in allergen-induced airway remodelling, inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in chronic asthma. Copyright©ERS 2011.


Cremers T.I.F.H.,Brains On Line BV | Flik G.,Brains On Line BV | Folgering J.H.A.,Brains On Line BV | Rollema H.,Rollema Biomedical Consulting | Stratford R.E.,Duquesne University
Drug Metabolism and Disposition | Year: 2016

Administration of bupropion [(6)-2-(tert-butylamino)-1-(3-chlorophenyl) propan-1-one] and its preformed active metabolite, hydroxybupropion [(6)-1-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-[(1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-propanyl)amino]- 1-propanone], to rats with measurement of unbound concentrations by quantitative microdialysis sampling of plasma and brain extracellular fluid was used to develop a compartmental pharmacokinetics model to describe the blood-brain barrier transport of both substances. The population model revealed rapid equilibration of both entities across the blood-brain barrier, with resultant steadystate brain extracellular fluid/plasma unbound concentration ratio estimates of 1.9 and 1.7 for bupropion and hydroxybupropion, respectively, which is thus indicative of a net uptake asymmetry. An overshoot of the brain extracellular fluid/plasma unbound concentration ratio at early time points was observed with bupropion; this was modeled as a time-dependent uptake clearance of the drug across the blood-brain barrier. Translation of the model was used to predict bupropion and hydroxybupropion exposure in human brain extracellular fluid after twice-daily administration of 150 mg bupropion. Predicted concentrations indicate that preferential inhibition of the dopamine and norepinephrine transporters by the metabolite, with little to no contribution by bupropion, would be expected at this therapeutic dose. Therefore, these results extend nuclear imaging studies on dopamine transporter occupancy and suggest that inhibition of both transporters contributes significantly to bupropion's therapeutic efficacy. ©2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.


Flik G.,Brains On Line BV | Folgering J.H.A.,Brains On Line BV | Cremers T.I.H.F.,Brains On Line BV | Westerink B.H.C.,Brains On Line BV | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Brain monoamines (serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, and histamine) play an important role in emotions, cognition, and pathophysiology and treatment of mental disorders. The interactions between serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine were studied in numerous works; however, histamine system received less attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between histamine and other monoamines, using in vivo microdialysis and electrophysiology. It was found that the inverse agonist of histamine-3 receptors, thioperamide, increased the firing activity of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area. Selective agonist of histamine-3 receptors, immepip, reversed thiperamide-induced stimulation of firing activity of dopamine neurons. The firing rates of serotonin and norpeinephrine neurons were not attenuated by immepip or thioperamide. Thioperamide robustly and significantly increased extracellular concentrations of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine in the rat prefrontal cortex and slightly increased norepinephrine and dopamine levels in the tuberomammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus. It can be concluded that histamine stimulates serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine transmission in the brain. Modulation of firing of dopamine neurons is a key element in functional interactions between histamine and other monoamines. Antagonists of histamine-3 receptors, because of their potential ability to stimulate monoamine neurotransmission, might be beneficial in the treatment of mental disorders. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Zwilling D.,University of California at San Francisco | Huang S.-Y.,University of California at San Francisco | Huang S.-Y.,Taube Koret Center for Huntingtons Disease Research | Sathyasaikumar K.V.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | And 23 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2011

Metabolites in the kynurenine pathway, generated by tryptophan degradation, are thought to play an important role in neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases. In these disorders, glutamate receptor-mediated excitotoxicity and free radical formation have been correlated with decreased levels of the neuroprotective metabolite kynurenic acid. Here, we describe the synthesis and characterization of JM6, a small-molecule prodrug inhibitor of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO). Chronic oral administration of JM6 inhibits KMO in the blood, increasing kynurenic acid levels and reducing extracellular glutamate in the brain. In a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, JM6 prevents spatial memory deficits, anxiety-related behavior, and synaptic loss. JM6 also extends life span, prevents synaptic loss, and decreases microglial activation in a mouse model of Huntington's disease. These findings support a critical link between tryptophan metabolism in the blood and neurodegeneration, and they provide a foundation for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Sommer S.,University of Stuttgart | Danysz W.,Merz Pharmaceuticals GmbH | Russ H.,Merz Pharmaceuticals GmbH | Valastro B.,Merz Pharmaceuticals GmbH | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2014

Drugs that are able to shift effort-related decision making in intact rats towards high-effort response options are largely unknown. Here, we examined the effects of two candidate drugs, MRZ-9547 and its l-enantiomer MRZ-9546 on progressive ratio (PR) responding using two different tasks, a standard PR task that involves increasing ratio requirements and a PR/chow feeding choice task in which animals can lever press for preferred food pellets under a PR schedule or approach freely available less preferred lab chow. Furthermore, we assessed the mechanisms of action of both drugs using in vitro-assay methods and in vivo-microdialysis. Results reveal that MRZ-9547 is a selective dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor that moderately stimulated striatal dopamine release. MRZ-9546 was a much less potent DAT inhibitor. Furthermore, MRZ-9547 dose dependently increased the tendency to work for food reinforcement both in the standard PR task and the PR/chow feeding choice task, MRZ-9546 was considerably less active. Relative to MRZ-9547, other DAT-interfering drugs had only moderate (methylphenidate) or marginal (modafinil, d-amphetamine) stimulant effects on PR responding in either task. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the DAT inhibitor MRZ-9547 can markedly stimulate PR responding and shift effort-related decision making in intact rats towards high-effort response options. An analysis of effort-related decision making in rodents could provide an animal model for motivational dysfunctions related to effort expenditure such as fatigue, e.g. in Parkinson's disease or major depression. Our findings suggest that DAT inhibitors such as MRZ-9547 could be potentially useful for treating energy-related symptoms in neurological or neuropsychiatric disorders. © CINP 2014.


Rollema H.,Pfizer | Wilson G.G.,Pfizer | Lee T.C.,Pfizer | Folgering J.H.A.,Brains On Line BV | Flik G.,Brains On Line BV
Neurochemistry International | Year: 2011

Since a substantial proportion of smokers have comorbid mood disorders, the smoking cessation aid varenicline might occasionally be prescribed to patients who are simultaneously treated with antidepressants. Given that varenicline is a selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist and not a substrate or inhibitor of drug metabolizing enzymes, pharmacokinetic interactions with various classes of antidepressants are highly unlikely. It is, however, conceivable that varenicline may have a pharmacodynamic effect on antidepressant-evoked increases in central monoamine release. Interactions resulting in excessive transmitter release could cause adverse events such as serotonin syndrome, while attenuation of monoamine release could impact the clinical efficacy of antidepressants. To investigate this we examined whether varenicline administration modulates the effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor sertraline and the monoamine oxidase inhibitor clorgyline, given alone and combined, on extracellular concentrations of the monoamines serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine in rat brain by microdialysis. Given the important role attributed to cortical monoamine release in serotonin syndrome as well as antidepressant activity, the effects on extracellular monoamine concentrations were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex. Responses to maximally effective doses of sertraline or clorgyline and of sertraline plus clorgyline were the same in the absence as in the presence of a relatively high dose of varenicline, which by itself had no significant effect on cortical monoamine release. This is consistent with the binding profile of varenicline that has insufficient affinity for receptors, enzymes, or transporters to inhibit or potentiate the pharmacologic effects of antidepressants. Since varenicline neither diminished nor potentiated sertraline- or clorgyline-induced increases in neurotransmitter levels, combining varenicline with serotonergic antidepressants is unlikely to cause excessive serotonin release or to attenuate antidepressant efficacy via effects on cortical serotonin, dopamine or norepinephrine release. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.


Iderberg H.,Lund University | McCreary A.C.,Brains On Line BV | Varney M.A.,Neurolixis, Inc. | Cenci M.A.,Lund University | Newman-Tancredi A.,Neurolixis, Inc.
Neuropharmacology | Year: 2015

Serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonists reduce l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we compared the effects of novel 5-HT1A receptor 'biased agonists' on LID in hemiparkinsonian rats. F13714 preferentially activates pre-synaptic 5-HT1A autoreceptors. F15599 preferentially activates cortical postsynaptic 5-HT1A heteroreceptors. The partial agonist, tandospirone, does not differentiate these receptor subpopulations. The drugs were also tested on rotational behavior, rotarod and cylinder test for evaluation of locomotor activity, motor coordination and forelimb akinesia. Finally, the effects of F13714 and F15599 on 5-HT, DA, glutamate, and GABA release were investigated by microdialysis. F13714 abolished l-DOPA-induced AIMs even at very low doses (0.02-0.04 mg/kg). This effect was reversed by the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY100635. F13714 also elicited ipsilateral rotations (which were blocked by WAY100635) and potentiated the rotational activity of a sub-threshold dose of l-DOPA (2 mg/kg). F13714 profoundly inhibited striatal 5-HT release on both sides of the brain, and slightly increased DA release on the intact side. F15599 inhibited the l-DOPA-induced AIMs only at a dose (0.16 mg/kg) that reduced 5-HT release. Tandospirone produced a modest attenuation of peak AIMs severity and did not elicit rotations. F13714, F15599 and tandospirone did not modify the action of l-DOPA in the cylinder test but impaired rotarod performance at the highest doses tested. Targeting 5-HT1A receptors with selective biased agonists exerts distinct effects in the rat model of PD and LID. Preferential activation of 5-HT1A autoreceptors could potentially translate to superior antidyskinetic and l-DOPA dose-sparing effects in PD patients. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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