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Baker L.M.,University of Missouri-St. Louis | Williams L.M.,University of Sydney | Williams L.M.,Brain Resource | Korgaonkar M.S.,University of Sydney | And 3 more authors.
Brain Imaging and Behavior | Year: 2013

Previous studies of early life trauma suggest that in addition to its emotional impact, exposure to early life stress (ELS) is associated with alterations in brain structure. However, little attention has been devoted to the relationship between emotional processing and brain integrity as a function of age of ELS onset. In the present study we examined whether ELS onset in older ages of youth rather than younger ages is associated with smaller limbic and basal ganglia volumes as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We hypothesized that later age of manifestation during youth is associated with smaller volumetric morphology in limbic and basal ganglia volumes in adulthood. A total of 173 individuals were divided into three groups based on the age of self-reported ELS. The three groups included individuals only experiencing early childhood ELS (1 month-7 years, n = 38), those only experiencing later childhood ELS (8 years -17 years, n = 59), and those who have not experienced ELS (n = 76). Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), hippocampus, amygdala, insula and caudate volumes were measured using a T1-weighted MRI. Analyses confirmed that later childhood ELS was associated with volumetric reductions in the ACC and insula volumes, while ELS experienced between the ages of 1 month and 7 years was not associated with lower brain volumes in these regions. The results may reflect the influence of more fully developed emotional processing of ELS on the developing brain and reinforce a body of research implicating both the ACC and insula in neuropsychiatric disorders and emotional regulation. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Stanek K.M.,Kent State University | Grieve S.M.,University of Sydney | Grieve S.M.,Brain Resource | Brickman A.M.,Columbia University | And 5 more authors.
Obesity | Year: 2011

Existing work demonstrates that obesity is independently associated with cognitive dysfunction and macrostructural brain changes; however, little is known about the association between obesity and white matter (WM) integrity. We explore this relationship in a large cohort of otherwise healthy subjects. The present study classified 103 adult participants from the Brain Resource International Database between 21 and 86 years of age without history of neurological, medical, or psychiatric illness according to BMI (normal weight, overweight, obese) and subjected them to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Resulting fractional anisotropy (FA) indexes for the corpus callosum and fornix were examined in relation to BMI and age in a multiple regression framework. Results indicated that increasing BMI was independently associated with lower FA in the genu, splenium, and fornix, and a BMI x age interaction emerged for FA in the splenium and body of the corpus callosum. When categorized, obese persons demonstrated lower FA than normal and overweight persons for all WM indexes, but no FA differences emerged between overweight and normal persons. Results indicate both a direct association between obesity and reduced WM tract integrity and an interaction between obesity and aging processes on certain WM tracts in otherwise healthy adults. While such findings suggest a possible role for adiposity in WM dysfunction and associated cognitive deficits, prospective studies are needed to clarify the nature of these relationships and elucidate underlying mechanisms. © 2010 The Obesity Society. Source


Benes F.M.,Brain Resource | Benes F.M.,Harvard University
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2015

Postmortem studies have suggested that there is abnormal GABAergic activity in the hippocampus in schizophrenia (SZ). In micro-dissected human hippocampal slices, a loss of interneurons and a compensatory upregulation of GABAA receptor binding activity on interneurons, but not PNs, has suggested that disinhibitory GABA-to-GABA connections are abnormal in stratum oriens (SO) of CA3/2, but not CA1, in schizophrenia. Abnormal expression changes in the expression of kainate receptor (KAR) subunits 5, 6 and 7, as well as an inwardly-rectifying hyperpolarization-activated cationic channel (Ih3; HCN3) may play important roles in regulating GABA cell activity at the SO CA3/2 locus. The exclusive neurons at this site are GABAergic interneurons; these cells also receive direct projections from the basolateral amygdala (BLA). When the BLA is stimulated by stereotaxic infusion of picrotoxin in rats, KARs influence axodendritic and presynaptic inhibitory mechanisms that regulate both inhibitory and disinhibitory interneurons in the SO-CA3/2 locus. The rat model described here was specifically developed to extend our understanding of these and other postmortem findings and has suggested that GABAergic abnormalities and possible disturbances in oscillatory rhythms may be related to a dysfunction of disinhibitory interneurons at the SO-CA3/2 site of schizophrenics. © 2015 . Source


Gordon E.,Brain Resource | Gordon E.,University of Sydney | Palmer D.M.,Brain Resource | Cooper N.,Brain Resource
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience | Year: 2010

Models of laterality infer distinct aspects of EEG alpha asymmetry in clinical disorders, which has been replicated for over three decades. This biomarker now requires a more fine-grained assessment of its clinical utility as a diagnostic and treatment predictive marker. Here, within the same study we assessed resting brain laterality across six clinical disorders, for which deviant laterality has been implicated as core dysfunction. These disorders were evaluated in comparison to a large normative dataset (∼1,900) from the Brain Resource International Database. EEG alpha asymmetry was assessed in the frontocentral region, for resting Eyes Closed and Eyes Open conditions. Schizophrenia was characterized by significantly greater left lateralized alpha power than controls, indicating a deficit in left frontal activity at rest, which may relate to "disconnections" across wider fronto-temporal networks. The depression group showed a trend-level tendency towards the opposite pattern of greater right-lateralized activity than controls. The remaining anxiety and behavioral disorders did not show any significant deviance in alpha asymmetry from the normative control group. However, at a non-significant level laterality for these groups was generally consistent with expected directions, suggesting a propensity towards a particular lateralization but still remaining within the normative range. Overall, the results of the current study indicate that EEG alpha asymmetry may show the most clinical utility as a biomarker for schizophrenia and depression in comparison to other clinical disorders. Source


Spronk D.,Research Institute Brainclinics | Arns M.,Research Institute Brainclinics | Arns M.,University Utrecht | Barnett K.J.,Brain Resource | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to investigate if biomarkers in QEEG, genetic and neuropsychological measures are suitable for the prediction of antidepressant treatment outcome in depression. Twenty-five patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder were assessed twice, pretreatment and at 8-wk follow-up, on a variety of QEEG and neuropsychological tasks. Additionally, cheek swab samples were collected to assess genetic predictors of treatment outcome. The primary outcome measure was the absolute decrease on the HAM-D rating scale. Regression models were built in order to investigate which markers contribute most to the decrease in absolute HAM-D scores. Patients who had a better clinical outcome were characterized by a decrease in the amplitude of the Auditory Oddball N1 at baseline. The 'Met/Met' variant of the COMT gene was the best genetic predictor of treatment outcome. Impaired verbal memory performance was the best cognitive predictor. Raised frontal Theta power was the best EEG predictor of change in HAM-D scores. A tentative integrative model showed that a combination of N1 amplitude at Pz and verbal memory performance accounted for the largest part of the explained variance. These markers may serve as new biomarkers suitable for the prediction of antidepressant treatment outcome. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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