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Spronk D.,Research Institute Brainclinics | Arns M.,Research Institute Brainclinics | Arns M.,University Utrecht | Barnett K.J.,Brain Resource | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to investigate if biomarkers in QEEG, genetic and neuropsychological measures are suitable for the prediction of antidepressant treatment outcome in depression. Twenty-five patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder were assessed twice, pretreatment and at 8-wk follow-up, on a variety of QEEG and neuropsychological tasks. Additionally, cheek swab samples were collected to assess genetic predictors of treatment outcome. The primary outcome measure was the absolute decrease on the HAM-D rating scale. Regression models were built in order to investigate which markers contribute most to the decrease in absolute HAM-D scores. Patients who had a better clinical outcome were characterized by a decrease in the amplitude of the Auditory Oddball N1 at baseline. The 'Met/Met' variant of the COMT gene was the best genetic predictor of treatment outcome. Impaired verbal memory performance was the best cognitive predictor. Raised frontal Theta power was the best EEG predictor of change in HAM-D scores. A tentative integrative model showed that a combination of N1 amplitude at Pz and verbal memory performance accounted for the largest part of the explained variance. These markers may serve as new biomarkers suitable for the prediction of antidepressant treatment outcome. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Korgaonkar M.S.,University of Sydney | Grieve S.M.,University of Sydney | Grieve S.M.,Brain Resource | Etkin A.,Stanford University | And 5 more authors.
Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2013

Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated dysregulation of prefrontal circuits in major depressive disorder (MDD), and these circuits are a viable target for predicting treatment outcomes. However, because of the heterogeneity of tasks and samples used in studies to date, it is unclear whether the central dysfunction is one of prefrontal hyperreactivity or hyporeactivity. We used a standardized battery of tasks and protocols for functional magnetic resonance imaging, to identify the common vs the specific prefrontal circuits engaged by these tasks in the same 30 outpatients with MDD compared with 30 matched, healthy control participants, recruited as part of the International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment in Depression (iSPOT-D). Reflecting cognitive neuroscience theory and established evidence, the battery included cognitive tasks designed to assess functions of selective attention, sustained attention-working memory and response inhibition, and emotion tasks to assess explicit conscious and implicit nonconscious viewing of facial emotion. MDD participants were distinguished by a distinctive biosignature of: hypoactivation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during working memory updating and during conscious negative emotion processing; hyperactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex during working memory and response inhibition cognitive tasks and hypoactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal during conscious processing of positive emotion. These results show that the use of standardized tasks in the same participants provides a way to tease out prefrontal circuitry dysfunction related to cognitive and emotional functions, and not to methodological or sample variations. These findings provide the frame of reference for identifying prefrontal biomarker predictors of treatment outcomes in MDD. © 2013 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. All rights reserved.

News Article | February 28, 2017

According to a new market research report "Cognitive Assessment and Training in Healthcare Market by Assessment Type (Pen-and-Paper Based, Hosted, and Biometrics), Components, Application (Clinical Trial, Screening & Diagnostics, Brain Training, Academic Research), & Region - Global forecast to 2021", published by MarketsandMarkets, the market size estimated to grow from USD 962.0 Million in 2016 to USD 4,127.2 Million by 2021, at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 33.8%. Browse 56 market data Tables and 44 Figures spread through 138 Pages and in-depth TOC on "Cognitive Assessment and Training in Healthcare Market" Early buyers will receive 10% customization on this report. The major forces driving this market are aging global population, increasing awareness about brain fitness, and advancements in technology. The growing market for cognitive solutions and increasing demand for brain training by next-generation tech-savvy population are contributing to the growth of the Cognitive Assessment and Training in Healthcare Market. Clinical trials in terms of application is expected hold the largest market share in the Cognitive Assessment and Training in Healthcare Market during the forecast period Clinical trials are mainly used to identify, measure, or monitor cognitive impairments and cognitive changes. The assessment of cognitive functions is an integral part of decision making during clinical drug development, as certain drugs can have an impact on the cognitive capabilities of the brain. The market is expected to contribute the highest revenue for vendors offering clinical trials. Service segment is expected to grow at the highest CAGR in the Cognitive Assessment and Training in Healthcare Market and the current trend is expected to continue during the forecast period An Increasing demand for cognitive assessment and training tests and procedures in the global healthcare market also provides a significant scope for associated services as well. The growth of the services segment is expected to accelerate, due to an increasing level of awareness regarding the brain fitness. With the increasing utilization of cognitive assessment and training solutions, the services act as an add-on to these solutions making them more valuable. Providers of cognitive assessment and training solutions and services offer training and coaching services to deliver balanced cognitive rehabilitation solutions. North America is expected to contribute the largest market share and Asia-Pacific (APAC) to grow at the highest rate North America is expected to hold the largest market share and to dominate the Cognitive Assessment and Training in Healthcare Market from 2016 to 2021, due to the increasing awareness among population about adopting medication for cognitive diseases. The new generation in this region is more concerned towards the benefits of cognitive training, which is not just limited to patients with cognitive dysfunctions. The U.S. market holds a majority of the market share in terms of adoption as well as revenue generation in the North American market, due to the rapidly aging population vulnerable to cognitive diseases in the region. The APAC region is expected to witness the highest growth rate during the forecast period, as the population in the region is more inclined towards adopting a healthier lifestyle. Hence, the concerns regarding cognitive diseases are growing in the region. The major vendors in the Cognitive Assessment and Training in Healthcare Market include Cambridge Cognition Ltd. (Cambridge, U.K.), Cogstate Ltd. (New Haven, U.S.), Bracket (Pennsylvania, U.S.), MedAvante Inc. (New Jersey, U.S.), Quest Diagnostic (New Jersey, U.S.), ProPhase, LLC (New York, U.S.), CogniFit (New York, U.S.), ERT Clinical (Pennsylvania, U.S.), NeuroCog Trials (North Carolina, U.S.), and Brain Resource Company (New South Wales, Australia). Cognitive Computing Market by Technology (Natural Language Processing, Machine Learning, Automated Reasoning), by Deployment Model (On-Premises, Cloud) & by Regions - Global Forecast to 2019 Cognitive Assessment and Training Market by Assessment Type (Pen & Paper Based, Hosted, Biometrics), Service, Application (Clinical Trials, Classroom Learning, Brain Training, Corporate Learning, Academic Research), Vertical and Region - Global Forecast to 2020 Know More About our Knowledge Store @ MarketsandMarkets is the largest market research firm worldwide in terms of annually published premium market research reports. Serving 1700 global fortune enterprises with more than 1200 premium studies in a year, M&M is catering to a multitude of clients across 8 different industrial verticals. We specialize in consulting assignments and business research across high growth markets, cutting edge technologies and newer applications. Our 850 fulltime analyst and SMEs at MarketsandMarkets are tracking global high growth markets following the "Growth Engagement Model - GEM". The GEM aims at proactive collaboration with the clients to identify new opportunities, identify most important customers, write "Attack, avoid and defend" strategies, identify sources of incremental revenues for both the company and its competitors. M&M's flagship competitive intelligence and market research platform, "RT" connects over 200,000 markets and entire value chains for deeper understanding of the unmet insights along with market sizing and forecasts of niche markets. The new included chapters on Methodology and Benchmarking presented with high quality analytical infographics in our reports gives complete visibility of how the numbers have been arrived and defend the accuracy of the numbers. We at MarketsandMarkets are inspired to help our clients grow by providing apt business insight with our huge market intelligence repository. 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Baker L.M.,University of Missouri-St. Louis | Williams L.M.,University of Sydney | Williams L.M.,Brain Resource | Korgaonkar M.S.,University of Sydney | And 3 more authors.
Brain Imaging and Behavior | Year: 2013

Previous studies of early life trauma suggest that in addition to its emotional impact, exposure to early life stress (ELS) is associated with alterations in brain structure. However, little attention has been devoted to the relationship between emotional processing and brain integrity as a function of age of ELS onset. In the present study we examined whether ELS onset in older ages of youth rather than younger ages is associated with smaller limbic and basal ganglia volumes as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We hypothesized that later age of manifestation during youth is associated with smaller volumetric morphology in limbic and basal ganglia volumes in adulthood. A total of 173 individuals were divided into three groups based on the age of self-reported ELS. The three groups included individuals only experiencing early childhood ELS (1 month-7 years, n = 38), those only experiencing later childhood ELS (8 years -17 years, n = 59), and those who have not experienced ELS (n = 76). Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), hippocampus, amygdala, insula and caudate volumes were measured using a T1-weighted MRI. Analyses confirmed that later childhood ELS was associated with volumetric reductions in the ACC and insula volumes, while ELS experienced between the ages of 1 month and 7 years was not associated with lower brain volumes in these regions. The results may reflect the influence of more fully developed emotional processing of ELS on the developing brain and reinforce a body of research implicating both the ACC and insula in neuropsychiatric disorders and emotional regulation. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Korgaonkar M.S.,University of Sydney | Grieve S.M.,University of Sydney | Grieve S.M.,Brain Resource | Koslow S.H.,Brain Resource | And 5 more authors.
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2011

White matter (WM) has been shown to be affected in elderly patients with major depressive disorders (MDD). There is only limited evidence of WM structural abnormalities in nongeriatric MDD patients. This study investigates WM microstructural integrity in nongeriatric MDD patients recruited as part of the International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment in Depression clinical trial and establishes the validity of diffusion tensor imaging measures for the investigation of depression. Baseline diffusion tensor imaging data from 29 nongeriatric MDD participants (11 with melancholia) and 39 healthy control participants were used in this analysis. We performed tract-based spatial statistics analyses to evaluate WM microstructural integrity (1) between all healthy controls and all MDD participants, (2) between melancholic and nonmelancholic MDD participants, and (3) between each subgroup (melancholic and nonmelancholic) and controls. Significant WM integrity deficits were seen only for the melancholic MDD participants compared with controls. Compared with controls, melancholic participants showed an average reduction of 7.8% in fractional anisotropy over WM regions associated with the limbic system, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, thalamic projection fibers, corpus callosum, and other association fibers. These fractional anisotropy deficits were also associated with decreased axial and increased radial diffusivity in these WM regions, suggesting a pattern of decreased myelination or other degeneration change. Our findings of WM structural abnormalities associated with the limbic system, the frontal cortex, and the thalamus support the prevailing theory of limbic-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex-thalamic dysfunction in depression. Our results also suggest that these deficits are most prominent in the melancholic subtype of MDD. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Day C.V.A.,University of Sydney | Day C.V.A.,Brain Resource | Williams L.M.,University of Sydney | Williams L.M.,Stanford University
Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics | Year: 2012

Melancholia is typified by features of psychomotor slowing, anxiety, appetite loss and sleep changes. It is usually observed in 20-30% of individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD). There is currently no agreement on whether melancholic MDD represents a distinct entity defined by neurobiological as well as clinical features or, rather, a specifier for MDD. This situation is reflected in the revisions to DSM, including in the DSM-5 due for release in 2013. With this context in mind, the authors review the origins of the construct of melancholia in MDD, its theoretical grounding and the defining characteristics that arose from this research. The authors then outline the state of knowledge on the neurobiology of melancholia. This second aspect is illustrative of the National Institutes of Mental Health's research domain criteria initiative, which offers a framework for redefining constructs along neurobiological dimensions. The authors also consider the outlook for identifying a useful biosignature of melancholia. © 2012 Expert Reviews Ltd.

Benes F.M.,Brain Resource | Benes F.M.,Harvard University
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2015

Postmortem studies have suggested that there is abnormal GABAergic activity in the hippocampus in schizophrenia (SZ). In micro-dissected human hippocampal slices, a loss of interneurons and a compensatory upregulation of GABAA receptor binding activity on interneurons, but not PNs, has suggested that disinhibitory GABA-to-GABA connections are abnormal in stratum oriens (SO) of CA3/2, but not CA1, in schizophrenia. Abnormal expression changes in the expression of kainate receptor (KAR) subunits 5, 6 and 7, as well as an inwardly-rectifying hyperpolarization-activated cationic channel (Ih3; HCN3) may play important roles in regulating GABA cell activity at the SO CA3/2 locus. The exclusive neurons at this site are GABAergic interneurons; these cells also receive direct projections from the basolateral amygdala (BLA). When the BLA is stimulated by stereotaxic infusion of picrotoxin in rats, KARs influence axodendritic and presynaptic inhibitory mechanisms that regulate both inhibitory and disinhibitory interneurons in the SO-CA3/2 locus. The rat model described here was specifically developed to extend our understanding of these and other postmortem findings and has suggested that GABAergic abnormalities and possible disturbances in oscillatory rhythms may be related to a dysfunction of disinhibitory interneurons at the SO-CA3/2 site of schizophrenics. © 2015 .

Hawley L.A.,Brain Resource
Journal of Social Work in Disability and Rehabilitation | Year: 2016

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in long-term injury-related disabilities. Individuals with TBI and their families must often advocate for themselves to secure resources to address their postinjury needs. However, the ability to advocate may be compromised by the effects of the injury. The Self-Advocacy for Independent Life (SAIL) program aims to empower individuals and families with the skills of self-advocacy so they can navigate life after brain injury in a self-efficacious manner. 2016 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Yong W.H.,Brain Resource | Dry S.M.,Brain Resource | Shabihkhani M.,Brain Resource
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

Powerful technologies critical to personalized medicine and targeted therapeutics require the analysis of carefully validated, procured, stored, and managed biospecimens. Reflecting advancements in biospecimen science, the National Cancer Institute and the International Society for Biological and Environmental Repositories are periodically publishing best practices that can guide the biobanker. The modern biobank will operate more like a clinical laboratory with formal accreditation, standard operating procedures, and quality assurance protocols. This chapter highlights practical issues of consent, procurement, storage, quality assurance, disbursement, funding, and space. Common topics of concern are discussed including the differences between clinical and research biospecimens, stabilization of biospecimens during procurement, optimal storage temperatures, and technical validation of biospecimen content and quality. With quickly expanding biospecimen needs and limited healthcare budgets, biobanks may need to be selective as to what is stored. Furthermore, a shift to roomerature storage modalities where possible can reduce long-term space and fiscal requirements. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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