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Miami, FL, United States

Chen P.,Florida International University | Fernald B.,Florida International University | Lin W.,Florida International University | Lin W.,Brain Institute
Physics in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2011

Both in medical research and clinical settings, regional hemoglobin concentrations ([Hb]) in the microcirculation of biological tissues are highly sought. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has been proven to be a favorable method by which to detect regional [Hb]. This paper introduces a new algorithm to retrieve [Hb] information from diffuse reflectance spectra. The proposed algorithm utilizes the natural logarithmic operation and the differential wavelet transform to effectively quench the scattering effects, and then employs the concept of isosbestic wavelength in the transformed spectra to reduce the effects of hemoglobin oxygenation. As a result, the intensity at the defined isosbestic wavelength of the transformed spectra is a good indicator of [Hb] estimation. The algorithm was derived and validated using theoretical spectra produced by Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration. Its accuracy was further evaluated using liquid tissue phantoms, and its clinical utility with an in vivo clinical study of brain tumors. The results demonstrate the applicability of the algorithm for real-time [Hb] estimations from diffuse reflectance spectra, acquired by means of a fiber-optic spectroscopy system. © 2011 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine. Source

Scott Perry M.,Comprehensive NeuroScience | Duchowny M.,Brain Institute | Duchowny M.,University of Miami
Epilepsia | Year: 2013

Nearly one third of patients with epilepsy become medically intractable, and the likelihood of achieving seizure freedom decreases with each additional medication trial. For appropriately chosen patients, epilepsy surgery affords the opportunity to achieve seizure freedom and potentially wean off medications. Epilepsy surgery, as with medical management, is not without adverse effects; to counsel patients wisely, practitioners need to understand the advantages and disadvantages of both. Randomized controlled trials in temporal lobe epilepsy reveal that epilepsy surgery achieves superior outcome compared to continued medical management. Although seizure freedom is the ultimate goal of any therapy, it represents a single outcome measure among a variety of other domains that affect patient welfare. It is imperative that providers understand the patient variables that affect these outcome measures and how these measures impact each other. Because the data comparing surgical therapy versus medical management for refractory epilepsy are limited, we review the available evidence comparing outcomes beyond seizure freedom including quality of life, cognition, psychosocial function, mortality, and financial costs.© 2013 International League Against Epilepsy. Source

Dean P.,Brain Institute
Seminars in Pediatric Neurology | Year: 2011

This review deals with the problem of counseling parents of children with intractable epilepsy. The previous topics address the complexity of the pathophysiology and the treatment options available both mainstream and alternative. However, knowing the reasons for intractability or the reasons for treatment failure may be insufficient to guide the health care professional in trying to help families deal with this problem on a day-to-day basis. There is no greater challenge for the epilepsy professional than caring for this group of patients. How do we help the parents of children we cannot help? Although we may not be able to eliminate seizures, we can be accessible and listen openly. We can try and help families develop strategies, skills, and resources that empower them to manage their situation more effectively. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

The objective was to establish a pattern of tumor growth of the C6 model of glioblastoma multiform in Wistar rats via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the subsequent verification of tumor volume reduction due to magnetic hyperthermia therapy. Young male Wistar rats weighing between 250 and 300 g were used for the C6 model. After the rats were anesthetized (55 mg/ kg ketamine and 11 mg/kg xylazine), C6 lineage tumorigenic cells suspended in culture medium (10(5) cells in 10 microl) were stereotaxically injected into the right frontal cortex (bregma coordinates: 2.0 mm anteroposterior, 3.0 mm laterolateral, and 2.5 mm depth) of the rats using a Hamilton syringe. For the control group, the rats were injected with culture medium without cells. MRI scans were performed at 14, 21, and 28 d after the injection using a 2.0 T MRI scanner (Bruker BioSpec, Germany). The animals were anesthetized with 55 mg/kg ketamine and 11 mg/kg xylazine before being examined. Coronal multilayers were acquired using a standard spin echo sequence with the following parameters: repetition/echo time = 4.000 ms/67.1 ms, field of view = 3.50, matrix = 192, slice thickness = 0.4 mm, and slice separation = 0 mm. The MRI analysis enabled a clear visualization of the tumor mass, and it was possible to establish the tumor volume parameters on the various days that were examined. The volume at 14 d after induction was 13.7 +/- 2.5 mm3. On days 21 and 28, the tumor volumes were 31.7 +/- 6.5 mm3 and 122.1 +/- 11.8 mm3, respectively. These results demonstrated that it is possible to evaluate the C6 model tumor volume in rats, which will allow for the future implementation and verification of magnetic hyperthermia therapy. Source

Cabrerizo M.,Florida International University | Ayala M.,Florida International University | Goryawala M.,Florida International University | Jayakar P.,Brain Institute | Adjouadi M.,Florida International University
International Journal of Neural Systems | Year: 2012

This study evaluates the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in associating scalp EEG to either control or epileptic patients by means of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and support vector machines (SVMs). A confluence of frequency and temporal parameters are extracted from the EEG to serve as input features to well-configured ANN and SVM networks. Through these classification results, we thus can infer the occurrence of high-risk (epileptic) as well as low risk (control) patients for potential follow up procedures. © 2012 World Scientific Publishing Company. Source

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