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Matsuyoshi D.,National Institute for Physiological science | Matsuyoshi D.,Osaka University | Matsuyoshi D.,Tokyo University of Science | Morita T.,National Institute for Physiological science | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Humans’ ability to recognize objects is remarkably robust across a variety of views unless faces are presented upside-down. Whether this face inversion effect (FIE) results from qualitative (distinct mechanisms) or quantitative processing differences (a matter of degree within common mechanisms) between upright and inverted faces has been intensely debated. Studies have focused on preferential responses to faces in face-specific brain areas, although face recognition also involves nonpreferential responses in non-face-specific brain areas. By using dynamic causal modeling with Bayesian model selection, here we show that dissociable cortical pathways are responsible for qualitative and quantitative mechanisms in the FIE in the distributed network for face recognition. When faces were upright, the early visual cortex (VC) and occipital and fusiform face areas (OFA, FFA) suppressed couplings to the lateral occipital cortex (LO), a primary locus of object processing. In contrast, they did not inhibit the LO when faces were inverted but increased couplings to the intraparietal sulcus, which has been associated with visual working memory. Furthermore, we found that upright and inverted face processing together involved the face network consisting of the VC, OFA, FFA, and inferior frontal gyrus. Specifically, modulatory connectivity within the common pathways (VC-OFA), implicated in the parts-based processing of faces, strongly correlated with behavioral FIE performance. The orientation-dependent dynamic reorganization of effective connectivity indicates that the FIE is mediated by both qualitative and quantitative differences in upright and inverted face processing, helping to resolve a central debate over the mechanisms of the FIE. © 2015 the authors.


Mizokami Y.,Oita University | Terao T.,Oita University | Hatano K.,Oita University | Kodama K.,Oita University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2014

Background There is a well-known association between artistic creativity and cyclothymic temperament but the neural correlates of cyclothymic temperament have not yet been fully identified. Recently, we showed that the left lingual gyrus and bilateral cuneus may be associated with esthetic judgment of representational paintings, we therefore sought to investigate brain activity during esthetic judgment of paintings in relation to measures of cyclothymic temperament. Methods Regions of interest (ROI) were set at the left lingual gyrus and bilateral cuneus using automated anatomical labeling, and percent signal changes of the ROIs were measured by marsbar toolbox. The associations between percent signal changes of the ROIs during esthetic judgments of paintings and cyclothymic temperament scores were investigated by Pearsons coefficient. Moreover, the associations were further analyzed using multiple regression analysis whereby cyclothymic temperament scores were a dependent factor and percent signal changes of the 3 ROIs and the other 4 temperament scores were independent factors. Results There was a significantly negative association of cyclothymic temperament scores with the percent signal changes of the left lingual gyrus during esthetic judgments of paintings, but not with those of bilateral cuneus. Even after adjustment using multiple regression analysis, this finding remained unchanged. Limitations The number of subjects was relatively small and the task was limited to appreciation of paintings. Conclusions The present findings suggest that cyclothymic temperament may be associated with the left lingual gyrus. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Kodama K.,Oita University | Terao T.,Oita University | Hatano K.,Oita University | Kohno K.,Oita University | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2014

Background Recently, we reported a significantly negative association of cyclothymic temperament scores with activations of the left lingual gyrus during esthetic judgments of paintings, suggesting that cyclothymic temperament may be associated with the left lingual gyrus. In view of potential associations of cyclothymic temperament, bipolar disorder and dementia, this study examined the relationship of temperament to lingual gyrus activity using a working memory task as a new context. Methods N-back tasks (0-, 1-, 2- and 3-back tasks) were performed on 34 healthy subjects using functional MRI. Multiple regression analyses were applied to measure the association between cyclothymic temperament scores and each of 4 beta images corresponding to 0-, 1-, 2- and 3-back tasks with gender, age and the other temperament scores (depressive, hyperthymic, irritable and anxious) as covariates. Results The whole brain analysis corrected for multiple comparisons revealed a significant activation of the left lingual gyrus associated with cyclothymic temperament scores in a new context - working memory for both 2- and 3-back tasks. Limitations The number of subjects was relatively small. The subjects were almost medical staff or students and the results should be interpreted with caution. Conclusions The present findings reconfirm that cyclothymic temperament may be associated with the left lingual gyrus. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Mizokami Y.,Oita University | Terao T.,Oita University | Hatano K.,Oita University | Hoaki N.,Oita University | And 8 more authors.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Several studies have investigated neural correlates of aesthetic appreciation for paintings but to date the findings have been heterogeneous. This heterogeneity may be attributed to previous studies' measurement of aesthetic appreciation of not only the beauty of paintings but also the beauty of motifs of the paintings. In order to better elucidate the beauty of paintings, it seems necessary to compare aesthetic appreciation of paintings and photographic analogs which included corresponding real images. We prepared for famous painters' pictures and their photographic analogs which were set up to resemble each painting in order to investigate the hypothesis that there exist specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings. Forty-four subjects participated in functional magnetic resonance study which required comparisons of aesthetic appreciation of paintings of still life and landscape versus photographic analogs including corresponding real images of still life and landscape. Bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus were activated in the comparison of aesthetic appreciation of paintings versus photographic analogs. In conclusion, the present findings suggest a possibility of the existence of specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings and that bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus may be involved. © 2014 Mizokami, Terao, Hatano, Hoaki, Kohno, Araki, Kodama, Makino, Izumi, Shimomura, Fujiki and Kochiyama.


Harada M.,Oita University | Terao T.,Oita University | Hatano K.,Oita University | Kohno K.,Oita University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2013

Background Hyperthymic temperament has been generally accepted as one of premorbid temperament of bipolar disorders. Although several studies indicate that subjects with hyperthymic temperament receive more illuminance, our recent study suggests that the threshold of brightness and darkness judgment is not different between more and less hyperthymic subjects, and that hyperthymic temperament may be associated with left inferior orbitofrontal cortex, which has been reported to be associated with bipolar disorder. Therefore, at the next stage, it can be hypothesized that hyperthymic subjects may prefer brightness (i.e.; heliotropism) and thereby seek illuminance, and that percent signal changes of left inferior orbitofrontal cortex during the preference task may be associated with hyperthymic temperament scores. Methods We compared brightness preference and un-preference between more and less hyperthymic subjects, and investigated percent signal changes of left inferior orbitofrontal cortex during brightness preference judgment, brightness un-preference judgment, and control task by using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Results There were significant differences in brightness preference judgment and un-preference judgment, showing that more hyperthymic subjects preferred brighter illuminace levels and un-preferred darker illuminance levels than less hyperthymic subjects. Moreover, fMRI signal changes of left inferior orbitofrontal cortex was significantly and negatively associated with hyperthymic temperament scores. Limitations It is unknown why left but not right inferior orbitofrontal cortex was associated with hyperthymic temperament scores. Conclusions The present findings suggest that more hyperthymic subjects may prefer brightness and un-prefer darkness than less hyperthymic subjects (i.e.; heliotropism), and reconfirm that hyperthymic temperament may be associated with left inferior orbitofrontal cortex, which have been reported to be associated with bipolar disorders. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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