Brain Activity Imaging Center

Kyoto, Japan

Brain Activity Imaging Center

Kyoto, Japan
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Matsuyoshi D.,National Institute for Physiological science | Matsuyoshi D.,Osaka University | Matsuyoshi D.,Tokyo University of Science | Morita T.,National Institute for Physiological science | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Humans’ ability to recognize objects is remarkably robust across a variety of views unless faces are presented upside-down. Whether this face inversion effect (FIE) results from qualitative (distinct mechanisms) or quantitative processing differences (a matter of degree within common mechanisms) between upright and inverted faces has been intensely debated. Studies have focused on preferential responses to faces in face-specific brain areas, although face recognition also involves nonpreferential responses in non-face-specific brain areas. By using dynamic causal modeling with Bayesian model selection, here we show that dissociable cortical pathways are responsible for qualitative and quantitative mechanisms in the FIE in the distributed network for face recognition. When faces were upright, the early visual cortex (VC) and occipital and fusiform face areas (OFA, FFA) suppressed couplings to the lateral occipital cortex (LO), a primary locus of object processing. In contrast, they did not inhibit the LO when faces were inverted but increased couplings to the intraparietal sulcus, which has been associated with visual working memory. Furthermore, we found that upright and inverted face processing together involved the face network consisting of the VC, OFA, FFA, and inferior frontal gyrus. Specifically, modulatory connectivity within the common pathways (VC-OFA), implicated in the parts-based processing of faces, strongly correlated with behavioral FIE performance. The orientation-dependent dynamic reorganization of effective connectivity indicates that the FIE is mediated by both qualitative and quantitative differences in upright and inverted face processing, helping to resolve a central debate over the mechanisms of the FIE. © 2015 the authors.


PubMed | Japan Women's University, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone and Brain Activity Imaging Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences | Year: 2017

Recent studies have shown that interindividual variability can be a rich source of information regarding the mechanism of human visual perception. In this study, we examined the mechanisms underlying interindividual variability in the perception of visual motion, one of the fundamental components of visual scene analysis, by measuring neurotransmitter concentrations using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. First, by psychophysically examining two types of motion phenomena-motion assimilation and contrast-we found that, following the presentation of the same stimulus, some participants perceived motion assimilation, while others perceived motion contrast. Furthermore, we found that the concentration of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate-glutamine (Glx) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 46) was positively correlated with the participants tendency to motion assimilation over motion contrast; however, this effect was not observed in the visual areas. The concentration of the inhibitory neurotransmitter -aminobutyric acid had only a weak effect compared with that of Glx. We conclude that excitatory process in the suprasensory area is important for an individuals tendency to determine antagonistically perceived visual motion phenomena.This article is part of the themed issue Auditory and visual scene analysis.


PubMed | Osaka National University, Osaka University of Human Sciences, Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies, Brain Activity Imaging Center and Graduate University for Advanced Studies
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Humans ability to recognize objects is remarkably robust across a variety of views unless faces are presented upside-down. Whether this face inversion effect (FIE) results from qualitative (distinct mechanisms) or quantitative processing differences (a matter of degree within common mechanisms) between upright and inverted faces has been intensely debated. Studies have focused on preferential responses to faces in face-specific brain areas, although face recognition also involves nonpreferential responses in non-face-specific brain areas. By using dynamic causal modeling with Bayesian model selection, here we show that dissociable cortical pathways are responsible for qualitative and quantitative mechanisms in the FIE in the distributed network for face recognition. When faces were upright, the early visual cortex (VC) and occipital and fusiform face areas (OFA, FFA) suppressed couplings to the lateral occipital cortex (LO), a primary locus of object processing. In contrast, they did not inhibit the LO when faces were inverted but increased couplings to the intraparietal sulcus, which has been associated with visual working memory. Furthermore, we found that upright and inverted face processing together involved the face network consisting of the VC, OFA, FFA, and inferior frontal gyrus. Specifically, modulatory connectivity within the common pathways (VC-OFA), implicated in the parts-based processing of faces, strongly correlated with behavioral FIE performance. The orientation-dependent dynamic reorganization of effective connectivity indicates that the FIE is mediated by both qualitative and quantitative differences in upright and inverted face processing, helping to resolve a central debate over the mechanisms of the FIE.


PubMed | University of Fukui, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Brain Activity Imaging Center and Osaka City University
Type: | Journal: Neuropsychologia | Year: 2016

Visual clues as to the physical substance of manufactured objects can be misleading. For example, a plastic ring can appear to be made of gold. However, we can avoid misidentifying an objects substance by comparing visual and tactile information. As compared to the spatial properties of an object (e.g., orientation), however, little information regarding physical object properties (material properties) is shared between vision and touch. How can such different kinds of information be compared in the brain? One possibility is that the visuo-tactile comparison of material information is mediated by associations that are previously learned between the two modalities. Previous studies suggest that a cortical network involving the medial temporal lobe and precuneus plays a critical role in the retrieval of information from long-term memory. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test whether these brain regions are involved in the visuo-tactile comparison of material properties. The stimuli consisted of surfaces in which an oriented plastic bar was placed on a background texture. Twenty-two healthy participants determined whether the orientations of visually- and tactually-presented bar stimuli were congruent in the orientation conditions, and whether visually- and tactually-presented background textures were congruent in the texture conditions. The texture conditions revealed greater activation of the fusiform gyrus, medial temporal lobe and lateral prefrontal cortex compared with the orientation conditions. In the texture conditions, the precuneus showed greater response to incongruent stimuli than to congruent stimuli. This incongruency effect was greater for the texture conditions than for the orientation conditions. These results suggest that the precuneus is involved in detecting incongruency between tactile and visual texture information in concert with the medial temporal lobe, which is tightly linked with long-term memory.


Mizokami Y.,Oita University | Terao T.,Oita University | Hatano K.,Oita University | Hoaki N.,Oita University | And 8 more authors.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Several studies have investigated neural correlates of aesthetic appreciation for paintings but to date the findings have been heterogeneous. This heterogeneity may be attributed to previous studies' measurement of aesthetic appreciation of not only the beauty of paintings but also the beauty of motifs of the paintings. In order to better elucidate the beauty of paintings, it seems necessary to compare aesthetic appreciation of paintings and photographic analogs which included corresponding real images. We prepared for famous painters' pictures and their photographic analogs which were set up to resemble each painting in order to investigate the hypothesis that there exist specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings. Forty-four subjects participated in functional magnetic resonance study which required comparisons of aesthetic appreciation of paintings of still life and landscape versus photographic analogs including corresponding real images of still life and landscape. Bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus were activated in the comparison of aesthetic appreciation of paintings versus photographic analogs. In conclusion, the present findings suggest a possibility of the existence of specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings and that bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus may be involved. © 2014 Mizokami, Terao, Hatano, Hoaki, Kohno, Araki, Kodama, Makino, Izumi, Shimomura, Fujiki and Kochiyama.


Harada M.,Oita University | Terao T.,Oita University | Hatano K.,Oita University | Kohno K.,Oita University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2013

Background Hyperthymic temperament has been generally accepted as one of premorbid temperament of bipolar disorders. Although several studies indicate that subjects with hyperthymic temperament receive more illuminance, our recent study suggests that the threshold of brightness and darkness judgment is not different between more and less hyperthymic subjects, and that hyperthymic temperament may be associated with left inferior orbitofrontal cortex, which has been reported to be associated with bipolar disorder. Therefore, at the next stage, it can be hypothesized that hyperthymic subjects may prefer brightness (i.e.; heliotropism) and thereby seek illuminance, and that percent signal changes of left inferior orbitofrontal cortex during the preference task may be associated with hyperthymic temperament scores. Methods We compared brightness preference and un-preference between more and less hyperthymic subjects, and investigated percent signal changes of left inferior orbitofrontal cortex during brightness preference judgment, brightness un-preference judgment, and control task by using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Results There were significant differences in brightness preference judgment and un-preference judgment, showing that more hyperthymic subjects preferred brighter illuminace levels and un-preferred darker illuminance levels than less hyperthymic subjects. Moreover, fMRI signal changes of left inferior orbitofrontal cortex was significantly and negatively associated with hyperthymic temperament scores. Limitations It is unknown why left but not right inferior orbitofrontal cortex was associated with hyperthymic temperament scores. Conclusions The present findings suggest that more hyperthymic subjects may prefer brightness and un-prefer darkness than less hyperthymic subjects (i.e.; heliotropism), and reconfirm that hyperthymic temperament may be associated with left inferior orbitofrontal cortex, which have been reported to be associated with bipolar disorders. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Harada M.,Oita University | Hoaki N.,Oita University | Terao T.,Oita University | Hatano K.,Oita University | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2013

Background: 1-lyperthymic temperament has been generally accepted as one of premorbid temperament of bipolar disorders. Since recent several studies indicate an association between illuminance and hyperthymic temperament, it can be hypothesized that more hyperthymic temperament subjects have a different threshold of brightness or darkness perception in comparison with less hyperthymic temperament subjects. Methods: We compared the threshold of brightness and darkness judgment between more and less hyperthymic subjects, and by simultaneously using fMRI we compared activations of whole brain between these subjects by two sample t-test. Furthermore, the association between the activations and hyperthymic temperament scores was analyzed. Results: Although there was no significant difference in the threshold of brightness or darkness judgment between more and less hyperthymic subjects, there was a significant difference in activations of the regions including left superior temporal gyms, left inferior orbitofrontal cortex, left triangular inferior frontal gyrus and left insula between these subjects. Moreover, there was a significantly positive association between a cluster containing left inferior orbitofrontal cortex and hyperthymic temperament scores. The common activated region of these two analyses (categorical and continuous ones) was determined as left inferior orbitofrontal cortex. Limitations: Limitation of the present study is a lack of brightness and darkness preference experiment between more and less hyperthymic subjects. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that the threshold of brightness and darkness judgment is not different between more and less hyperthymic subjects, and that hyperthymic temperament may be associated with left inferior orbitofrontal cortex, which has been reported to be associated with bipolar disorder. © 2013 Elsevier BV. All rights reserved. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Kyoto University, Brain Activity Imaging Center and Shiga University
Type: | Journal: Human brain mapping | Year: 2016

Debate continues over whether the inferior occipital gyrus (IOG) or the fusiform gyrus (FG) represents the first stage of face processing and what role these brain regions play. We investigated this issue by combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) in normal adults. Participants passively observed upright and inverted faces and houses. First, we identified the IOG and FG as face-specific regions using fMRI. We applied beamforming source reconstruction and time-frequency analysis to MEG source signals to reveal the time course of gamma-band activations in these regions. The results revealed that the right IOG showed higher gamma-band activation in response to upright faces than to upright houses at 100 ms from the stimulus onset. Subsequently, the right FG showed greater gamma-band response to upright faces versus upright houses at around 170 ms. The gamma-band activation in the right IOG and right FG was larger in response to inverted faces than to upright faces at the later time window. These results suggest that (1) the gamma-band activities occurs rapidly first in the IOG and next in the FG and (2) the gamma-band activity in the right IOG at later time stages is involved in configuration processing for faces. Hum Brain Mapp, 2016. 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | Oita University and Brain Activity Imaging Center
Type: | Journal: Journal of affective disorders | Year: 2014

Recently, we reported a significantly negative association of cyclothymic temperament scores with activations of the left lingual gyrus during esthetic judgments of paintings, suggesting that cyclothymic temperament may be associated with the left lingual gyrus. In view of potential associations of cyclothymic temperament, bipolar disorder and dementia, this study examined the relationship of temperament to lingual gyrus activity using a working memory task as a new context.N-back tasks (0-, 1-, 2- and 3-back tasks) were performed on 34 healthy subjects using functional MRI. Multiple regression analyses were applied to measure the association between cyclothymic temperament scores and each of 4 beta images corresponding to 0-, 1-, 2- and 3-back tasks with gender, age and the other temperament scores (depressive, hyperthymic, irritable and anxious) as covariates.The whole brain analysis corrected for multiple comparisons revealed a significant activation of the left lingual gyrus associated with cyclothymic temperament scores in a new context-working memory for both 2- and 3-back tasks.The number of subjects was relatively small. The subjects were almost medical staff or students and the results should be interpreted with caution.The present findings reconfirm that cyclothymic temperament may be associated with the left lingual gyrus.


PubMed | Tokyo Metroplitan University, Okazaki National Research Institute and Brain Activity Imaging Center
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

Positive social interactions contribute to the sense that ones life has meaning. Enjoyment of feelings associated through social interaction motivates humans to build social connections according to their personal preferences. Therefore, we hypothesized that social interaction itself activates the reward system in a manner that depends upon individual interaction preferences. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which 38 participants played a virtual ball-toss game in which the number of ball tosses to the participant was either similar to (normal-frequency condition) or higher than (high-frequency condition) the number of tosses to the other players. Participants reported greater-than-anticipated enjoyment during the high-frequency condition, suggesting that receiving a social reward led to unexpected positive feelings. Consistent with this, the high-frequency condition produced stronger activation in the ventral striatum, which is part of the reward system, and the precuneus, representing positive self-image, which might be translated to social reward. Furthermore, ventral striatal activation covaried with individual participants preference for interactions with others. These findings suggest that an elevated frequency of social interaction is represented as a social reward, which might motivate individuals to promote social interaction in a manner that is modulated by personal preference.

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