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Pal D.,Krishna Girls Engineering College | Pal R.K.,Krishna Girls Engineering College | Pandey J.L.,National Physical Laboratory India | Abdi S.H.,BBD National Institute of Technology | Agnihotri A.K.,Brahmanand Post Graduate College
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics | Year: 2010

Lithium mixed sodium trititanates with 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 M percentage of Li 2CO 3 (general formula Na 2-X Li X Ti 3O 7) have prepared by a high temperature solid-state reaction route. EPR analysis, high temperature range (473-773 K) and variable frequency range (100 Hz-1 MHz) ac conductivity measurements were carried out on prepared sample. The lithium ions are accommodated with the sodium ions in the interlayer space. The EPR specta of lithium mixed sodium Trititanates confirm the partial reduction of Ti 4+ ions to Ti 3+. Four distinct regions have identified in the LnσT versus 1,000/T plots. Various conduction mechanisms which dependence on concentration, frequency and temperature are reported in this paper for lithium mixed layered sodium Trititanates. The dilation of interlayer space has further been proposed to occur due to inclusion of lithium ions in the interlayer space. The conductivity increases as the concentration of lithium increases. The increase of ionic conductivity in these compounds is due to accommodation of lithium ions with sodium ions in interlayer space. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Kumar V.,Brahmanand Post Graduate College | Kailash,Brahmanand Post Graduate College
20th International Congress on Acoustics 2010, ICA 2010 - Incorporating Proceedings of the 2010 Annual Conference of the Australian Acoustical Society | Year: 2010

Nanofluids are stable suspensions of nano-particles in a liquid. In order to avoid coagulation of the particles, the particles must be coated with a second distance holder phase which in most cases, consist of surfactants that are stable in the liquid. An important application of Nanofluids containing nano-particles is as a coolant, since the addition of only a few volume percent of nano-particles to a liquid coolant and significantly improves its thermal conductivity. The term nanotechnology has also been used more broadly to refer to techniques that produce or measure features less than 100 nanometers in size; this meaning embraces advanced micro fabrication and metrology. Nanotechnology based on molecular manufacturing requires a combination of familiar chemical and mechanical principles in unfamiliar applications. Metal nano-particles can be used in various application fields, such as optical filters or nanolithography. Metal nano-particles are also widely applied in catalysis because of the high surface to volume ratio. Copper nano-particles have been synthesized by the flow-levitation method and coated with carbon-and-hydrogen films through the hollow-cathode glow discharge. The uncoated and coated Cu nano-particles have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared absorption. Their size, dispersion, and coating thickness have been examined. The addition of copper nanoparticle did not change the dependence of heat transfer on acoustic cavitations and fluid sub cooling. Ultrasonic velocity is the speed in which sound propagates in a certain material. It depends on material density and elasticity. It is related in a simple way to the various coefficients of compressibility, isentropic, isenthalpic and isothermal, hence the importance of its measurement and modeling in temperature and pressure ranges are widely used. In this work we have measured the ultrasonic velocity at different temperature and frequencies of 15 nm copper fluid using Interferometer technique. Copyright © (2010) by the International Congress on Acoustics.


Yadav P.K.,Brahmanand Post Graduate College | Ram V.,Brahmanand Post Graduate College | Singh Dohere A.P.,Brahmanand Post Graduate College | Ruchi R.,Brahmanand Post Graduate College
Indian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2013

A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2007-09 at Hamirpur, Uttar Pradesh to evaluate 5 cropping systems and 4 phosphorus levels in chickpea {Cicer arietinum (L.)} and mustard {Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss} intercropping systems. Sole chickpea and mustard gave highest seed yield. Among intercropping, 6:3 row ratio produced significantly the highest seed yield of chickpea (1.10 t/ha) followed by 4:2 row ratio (0.99 t/ ha). Chickpea grain equivalent yield (1.55 t/ha) and LER (1.32) were recorded the highest under 6:3 row ratio followed by 4:2 row ratio (1.46 t/ha and 1.26, respectively). Seed yield of chickpea, mustard and chickpea grain equivalent yield increased with increasing levels of phosphorus upto 60 kg P2O5/ha. Protein content in chickpea seed was recorded the highest in sole stand. Maximum net profit of 31,450/ha and B:C ratio of 2.48 was recorded in 6:3 row ratio intercropping. Increasing levels of phosphorus increased seed yield, protein content in chickpea seed, oil content in mustard seed, net profit, and B:C ratio significantly up to 60 kg P2O5/ha. It is thus concluded that intercropping of chickpea and mustard in 6:3 row ratio with 60 kg P2O5/ha is better combination for higher productivity.

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