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Bradley Gardens, United States

McQuaid E.L.,Brown University | McQuaid E.L.,Bradley Hasbro Childrens Research Center | Spirito A.,Brown University
Journal of Pediatric Psychology | Year: 2012

Existing literature highlights a critical gap between science and practice in clinical psychology. The internship year is a "capstone experience"; training in Methods of scientific evaluation should be integrated with the development of advanced clinical competencies. We provide a rationale for continued exposure to research during the clinical internship year, including, (a) critical examination and integration of the literature regarding evidence-based treatment and assessment, (b) participation in faculty-based and independent research, and (c) orientation to the science and strategy of grantsmanship. Participation in research provides exposure to new empirical models and can foster the development of applied research questions. Orientation to grantsmanship can yield an initial sense of the "business of science." Internship provides an important opportunity to examine the challenges to integrating the clinical evidence base into professional practice; for that reason, providing research exposure on internship is an important strategy in training the next generation of pediatric psychologists. © 2011 The Author.

Wing R.,Brown University | Gjelsvik A.,Brown University | Nocera M.,Brown University | McQuaid E.L.,Brown University | McQuaid E.L.,Bradley Hasbro Childrens Research Center
Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology | Year: 2015

Background Numerous studies suggest that psychosocial factors could contribute to pediatric asthma. Objective To examine the relation between single and cumulative adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), a measurement of household dysfunction, on parent report of lifetime asthma in children. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from the 2011 to 2012 National Survey of Children's Health, a nationally representative sample of children 0 to 17 years old (n = 92,472). The main exposure was parent or guardian report of 6 ACE exposures (eg, witnessing domestic violence). The relation between ACE exposures and parent-reported diagnosis of childhood asthma was examined using multivariable logistic regression after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral covariates. Results Overall asthma prevalence was 14.6%. Exposure prevalence to any ACE was 29.2%. Increased number of ACE exposures was associated with increased odds of asthma. In the adjusted model, the odds of reporting asthma were 1.28 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.43) for those reporting 1 ACE, 1.73 (95% CI 1.27-2.36) for those with 4 ACEs, and 1.61 (95% CI 1.15-2.26) for those with 5 or 6 ACEs compared with those with no ACE exposures. Effects were moderated by Hispanic ethnicity. Hispanic children exposed to 4 ACEs had a 4.46 times increase in lifetime asthma (95% CI 2.46-8.08); white children had a 1.19 times increase (95% CI 0.80-1.79) compared with those exposed to 0 ACE. Conclusion This study supports the growing evidence for the biopsychosocial model of asthma onset. Future studies should examine the association between ACEs and specific asthma-related health outcomes. © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Tolou-Shams M.,Bradley Hasbro Childrens Research Center
Journal of pediatric psychology | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a critical review of all HIV prevention intervention studies conducted with adolescents in juvenile justice settings to inform future intervention development. METHOD: PubMed and PsycInfo database searches were conducted for peer-reviewed, published HIV prevention intervention studies with juvenile offenders. RESULTS: Sixteen studies were identified (N = 3,700 adolescents). Half of the projects utilized rigorous methodologies to determine intervention effect on behavior change, such as conducting a randomized controlled trial (n = 8). Nine studies reported behaviors at least 3 months post-intervention and five out of nine showed decreases in sexual risk behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Several HIV prevention programs with juvenile offenders have led to sexual risk reduction, although effect sizes are modest. Most existing programs have neglected to address the impact of family, mental health, and substance use on HIV risk. More work is needed to develop evidence-based interventions that include HIV prevention strategies relevant and appropriate for the juvenile justice setting.

Flentje A.,San Francisco General Hospital | Heck N.C.,Brown University | Heck N.C.,Bradley Hasbro Childrens Research Center | Sorensen J.L.,San Francisco General Hospital
Addictive Behaviors | Year: 2014

Little is known about the needs or characteristics of transgender individuals in substance abuse treatment settings. Transgender (n=199) and non-transgender (cisgender, n=13,440) individuals were compared on psychosocial factors related to treatment, health risk behaviors, medical and mental health status and utilization, and substance use behaviors within a database that documented individuals entering substance abuse treatment in San Francisco, CA from 2007 to 2009 using logistic and linear regression analyses (run separately by identified gender). Transgender men (assigned birth sex of female) differed from cisgender men across many psychosocial factors, including having more recent employment, less legal system involvement, greater incidence of living with a substance abuser, and greater family conflict, while transgender women (assigned birth sex of male) were less likely to have minor children than cisgender women. Transgender women reported greater needle use, and HIV testing rates were greater among transgender women. Transgender men and women reported higher rates of physical health problems, mental health diagnoses, and psychiatric medications, but there were no differences in service utilization. There were no differences in substance use behaviors except that transgender women were more likely to endorse primary methamphetamine use. Transgender individuals evidence unique strengths and challenges that could inform targeted services in substance abuse treatment. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Berger R.H.,Bradley Hasbro Childrens Research Center | Miller A.L.,University of Michigan | Seifer R.,Bradley University | Cares S.R.,Boston College | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Sleep Research | Year: 2012

Early childhood is a period of dramatic change in sleep and emotion processing, as well as a time when disturbance in both domains are first detected. Although sleep is recognized as central in emotion processing and psychopathology, the great majority of experimental data have been collected in adults. We examined the effects of acute sleep restriction (nap deprivation) on toddlers' emotion expression. Ten healthy children (seven females; 30-36months old) followed a strict sleep schedule (≥12.5h time in bedper 24-h) for 5days, before each of two randomly assigned afternoon emotion assessments following Nap and No-Nap conditions (resulting in an 11-day protocol). Children viewed emotion-eliciting pictures (five positive, three neutral, three negative) and completed puzzles (one solvable, one unsolvable). Children's faces were video-recorded, and emotion displays were coded. When sleep restricted, children displayed less confusion in response to neutral pictures, more negativity to neutral and negative pictures, and less positivity to positive pictures. Sleep restriction also resulted in a 34% reduction in positive emotion responses (solvable puzzle), as well as a 31% increase in negative emotion responses and a 39% decrease in confused responses (unsolvable puzzle). These findings suggest sleep is a key factor in how young children respond to their world. When sleep restricted, toddlers are neither able to take full advantage of positive experiences nor are they as adaptive in challenging contexts. If insufficient sleep consistently 'taxes' young children's emotion responses, they may not manage emotion regulation challenges effectively, potentially placing them at risk for future emotional/behavioral problems. © 2011 European Sleep Research Society.

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