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Deconinck F.J.A.,Ghent University | Deconinck F.J.A.,Manchester Metropolitan University | Smorenburg A.R.P.,Burke Cornell Medical Research Institute | Benham A.,Bradford Institute for Health Research | And 3 more authors.
Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair | Year: 2015

Background. Mirror visual feedback (MVF), a phenomenon where movement of one limb is perceived as movement of the other limb, has the capacity to alleviate phantom limb pain or promote motor recovery of the upper limbs after stroke. The tool has received great interest from health professionals; however, a clear understanding of the mechanisms underlying the neural recovery owing to MVF is lacking. Objective. We performed a systematic review to assess the effect of MVF on brain activation during a motor task. Methods. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases for neuroimaging studies investigating the effect of MVF on the brain. Key details for each study regarding participants, imaging methods, and results were extracted. Results. The database search yielded 347 article, of which we identified 33 suitable for inclusion. Compared with a control condition, MVF increases neural activity in areas involved with allocation of attention and cognitive control (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, S1 and S2, precuneus). Apart from activation in the superior temporal gyrus and premotor cortex, there is little evidence that MVF activates the mirror neuron system. MVF increases the excitability of the ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1) that projects to the "untrained" hand/arm. There is also evidence for ipsilateral projections from the contralateral M1 to the untrained/affected hand as a consequence of training with MVF. Conclusion. MVF can exert a strong influence on the motor network, mainly through increased cognitive penetration in action control, though the variance in methodology and the lack of studies that shed light on the functional connectivity between areas still limit insight into the actual underlying mechanisms. © The Author(s) 2014.


Ball H.L.,Durham University | Moya E.,Bradford Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust | Fairley L.,Bradford Institute for Health Research | Westman J.,Maternity Unit | And 2 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and associations of bed- and sofa-sharing in a biethnic UK birth cohort. METHODS: We surveyed 3082 participants in the Born in Bradford birth cohort study by using a telephone interview when infants were aged 2 to 4 months.We asked families about sleep surface sharing behaviors, and other sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI)-related behaviors. RESULTS: There were 15.5% of families that had ever bed-shared, 7.2% of families regularly bed-shared, and 9.4% of families had ever sofa-shared with their infants; 1.4% reported both. Regular bed-sharers were more commonly Pakistani (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.96-4.66), had further or higher educational qualifications (aOR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.03-2.57), or breastfed for at least 8 weeks (aOR = 3.06, 95% CI 2.00-4.66). The association between breastfeeding and bedsharing was greater among white British than Pakistani families. Sofasharing occurred in association with smoking (aOR = 1.79, 95% CI 1.14-2.80) and breastfeeding for more than 8 weeks (aOR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.19-2.58), and was less likely in Pakistani families (aOR = 0.21, 95% CI 0.14-0.31), or single-parent families (aOR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.29-0.87). CONCLUSIONS: The data confirm that bed-sharing and sofa-sharing are distinct practices, which should not be combined in studies of unexpected infant deaths as a single exposure. The determinants of sleep-surface sharing differ between the UK Pakistani and UK majority communities, and from those of US minority communities. Caution is needed in generalizing SUDI/SIDS risk factors across populations with differing risk factor profiles, and care should be taken in adopting SUDI/SIDS reduction guidelines from other contexts. Copyright © 2012 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.


Dyson J.,University of Hull | Lawton R.,University of Leeds | Lawton R.,Bradford Institute for Health Research | Jackson C.,University of York | Cheater F.,University of East Anglia
Implementation Science | Year: 2013

Background: A theoretical approach to assessing the barriers and levers to evidence-based practice (EBP) with subsequent tailoring of theoretically informed strategies to address these may go some way to positively influencing the delay in implementing research findings into practice. Hand hygiene is one such example of EBP, chosen for this study due to its importance in preventing death through healthcare associated infections (HCAI). The development of an instrument to assess barriers and levers to hand hygiene and to allow the subsequent tailoring of theoretically informed implementation strategies is reported here.Methods: A comprehensive list of barriers and levers to hand hygiene were categorised to the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) in a Delphi survey. These items formed the basis of an instrument that was tested to establish validity and reliability. The relationship between self-reported compliance with hand hygiene and barriers and levers to hand hygiene was also examined along with compliance according to where the barriers and levers fit within the domains of the TDF framework.Results: A 33-item instrument that tested well for internal consistency (α = 0.84) and construct validity (χ2/df = 1.9 [p < 0.01], RMSEA = 0.05 and CFA = 0.84) was developed. The relationship between self-reported compliance with hand hygiene moderately correlated with barriers identified by participants (total barrier score) (r = 0.41, n = 276, p <0.001). The greater the number of barriers reported, the lower the level of compliance. A one-way between groups multivariate analysis of variance was performed to investigate differences between those adopting high or low compliance with hand hygiene. Compliance was highest for this sample of participants among practitioners with high levels of motivation, strong beliefs about capabilities, when there were positive social influences, when hand hygiene was central to participants' sense of professional identity and was easier to remember to do.Conclusions: This study has produced encouraging findings suggesting the potential for improved hand hygiene and resulting effects on the human and financial costs of healthcare associated infection. This study identifies a further potential use for the TDF. © 2013 Dyson et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Petherick E.S.,Bradford Institute for Health Research | Cullum N.A.,University of Manchester | Pickett K.E.,University of York
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: There has been limited examination of the contribution of socio-economic factors to the development of leg ulcers, despite the social patterning of many underlying risk factors. No previous studies were found that examined social patterns in the quality of treatment received by patients with leg ulcers. Methods: Using The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database we identified a cohort of over 14000 patients with a diagnosis of venous leg ulceration, prospectively recorded between the years 2001 and 2006, with linked area-level socio-economic information (Townsend deprivation quintile). We assessed socio-economic differences in the incidence and prevalence of leg ulcers using negative binomial regression. Socio-economic differences in two key areas of guideline recommended leg ulcer management, arterial Doppler assessment and compression bandaging, were assessed using multilevel regression. Results: The risk of incident venous leg ulceration increased for patients living in areas of higher deprivation, even after adjustment for known risk factors age and gender. Overall reported rates of Doppler assessment and provision of compression therapy were low, with less than sixteen per cent of patients having a database record of receiving these recommended diagnostic and treatment options. Patients diagnosed with incident venous leg ulcers living in the most deprived areas were less likely to receive the recommended Doppler-aided assessment for peripheral vascular disease than patients living in the least deprived areas (odds ratio 0.43, 95% confidence interval 0.24-0.78). Documented provision of compression therapy did not vary with deprivation. Conclusions: A socio-economic gradient in venous leg ulcer disease was observed. The overall rates of people with venous leg ulcers who were documented as receiving guideline recommended care (2001-2006) were low. Reported use of Doppler ultrasound assessment was negatively associated with socio-economic status. These findings suggest that the inequalities experienced by leg ulcer patients may be exacerbated by reduced access to guideline-based management. © 2013 Petherick et al.


Braithwaite J.,University of New South Wales | Marks D.,University of New South Wales | Taylor N.,Bradford Institute for Health Research
International Journal for Quality in Health Care | Year: 2014

Background. Getting greater levels of evidence into practice is a key problem for health systems, compounded by the volume of research produced. Implementation science aims to improve the adoption and spread of research evidence. A linked problem is how to enhance quality of care and patient safety based on evidence when care settings are complex adaptive systems. Our research question was: according to the implementation science literature, which common implementation factors are associated with improving the quality and safety of care for patients? Methods. We conducted a targeted search of key journals to examine implementation science in the quality and safety domain applying PRISMA procedures. Fifty-seven out of 466 references retrieved were considered relevant following the application of exclusion criteria. Included articles were subjected to content analysis. Three reviewers extracted and documented key characteristics of the papers. Grounded theory was used to distil key features of the literature to derive emergent success factors. Results. Eight success factors of implementation emerged: preparing for change, capacity for implementation-people, capacity for implementation-setting, types of implementation, resources, leverage, desirable implementation enabling features, and sustainability. Obstacles in implementation are the mirror image of these: for example, when people fail to prepare, have insufficient capacity for implementation or when the setting is resistant to change, then care quality is at risk, and patient safety can be compromised. Conclusions. This review of key studies in the quality and safety literature discusses the current state-of-play of implementation science applied to these domains. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; All rights reserved.


Sirriyeh R.,University of Leeds | Lawton R.,University of Leeds | Gardner P.,University of Leeds | Armitage G.,Bradford Institute for Health Research
Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice | Year: 2012

Rationale, aims & objective: Tools for the assessment of the quality of research studies tend to be specific to a particular research design (e.g. randomized controlled trials, or qualitative interviews). This makes it difficult to assess the quality of a body of research that addresses the same or a similar research question but using different approaches. The aim of this paper is to describe the development and preliminary evaluation of a quality assessment tool that can be applied to a methodologically diverse set of research articles. Methods: The 16-item quality assessment tool (QATSDD) was assessed to determine its reliability and validity when used by health services researchers in the disciplines of psychology, sociology and nursing. Qualitative feedback was also gathered from mixed-methods health researchers regarding the comprehension, content, perceived value and usability of the tool. Results: Reference to existing widely used quality assessment tools and experts in systematic review confirmed that the components of the tool represented the construct of 'good research technique' being assessed. Face validity was subsequently established through feedback from a sample of nine health researchers. Inter-rater reliability was established through substantial agreement between three reviewers when applying the tool to a set of three research papers (κ = 71.5%), and good to substantial agreement between their scores at time 1 and after a 6-week interval at time 2 confirmed test-retest reliability. Conclusions: The QATSDD shows good reliability and validity for use in the quality assessment of a diversity of studies, and may be an extremely useful tool for reviewers to standardize and increase the rigour of their assessments in reviews of the published papers which include qualitative and quantitative work. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Sirriyeh R.,University of Leeds | Lawton R.,University of Leeds | Gardner P.,University of Leeds | Armitage G.,Bradford Institute for Health Research
Quality and Safety in Health Care | Year: 2010

Background: Previous research has established health professionals as secondary victims of medical error, with the identification of a range of emotional and psychological repercussions that may occur as a result of involvement in error.2 3 Due to the vast range of emotional and psychological outcomes, research to date has been inconsistent in the variables measured and tools used. Therefore, differing conclusions have been drawn as to the nature of the impact of error on professionals and the subsequent repercussions for their team, patients and healthcare institution. A systematic review was conducted. Methods Data sources were identified using database searches, with additional reference and hand searching. Eligibility criteria were applied to all studies identified, resulting in a total of 24 included studies. Quality assessment was conducted with the included studies using a tool that was developed as part of this research, but due to the limited number and diverse nature of studies, no exclusions were made on this basis. Results Review findings suggest that there is consistent evidence for the widespread impact of medical error on health professionals. Psychological repercussions may include negative states such as shame, self-doubt, anxiety and guilt. Despite much attention devoted to the assessment of negative outcomes, the potential for positive outcomes resulting from error also became apparent, with increased assertiveness, confidence and improved colleague relationships reported. Conclusion It is evident that involvement in a medical error can elicit a significant psychological response from the health professional involved. However, a lack of literature around coping and support, coupled with inconsistencies and weaknesses in methodology, may need be addressed in future work.


Ward J.K.,Bradford Institute for Health Research | Armitage G.,University of Bradford
BMJ Quality and Safety | Year: 2012

Introduction: Patients are increasingly being thought of as central to patient safety. A small but growing body of work suggests that patients may have a role in reporting patient safety problems within a hospital setting. This review considers this disparate body of work, aiming to establish a collective view on hospital-based patient reporting. Study objectives: This review asks: (a) What can patients report? (b) In what settings can they report? (c) At what times have patients been asked to report? (d) How have patients been asked to report? Method: 5 databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, (Kings Fund) HMIC and PsycINFO) were searched for published literature on patient reporting of patient safety 'problems' (a number of search terms were utilised) within a hospital setting. In addition, reference lists of all included papers were checked for relevant literature. Results: 13 papers were included within this review. All included papers were quality assessed using a framework for comparing both qualitative and quantitative designs, and reviewed in line with the study objectives. Discussion: Patients are clearly in a position to report on patient safety, but included papers varied considerably in focus, design and analysis, with all papers lacking a theoretical underpinning. In all papers, reports were actively solicited from patients, with no evidence currently supporting spontaneous reporting. The impact of timing upon accuracy of information has yet to be established, and many vulnerable patients are not currently being included in patient reporting studies, potentially introducing bias and underestimating the scale of patient reporting. The future of patient reporting may well be as part of an 'error detection jigsaw' used alongside other methods as part of a quality improvement toolkit.


Farrar D.,Bradford Institute for Health Research
International Journal of Women's Health | Year: 2016

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common medical conditions in pregnancy, and the prevalence is growing with increasing rates of women of advanced age becoming pregnant and the increasing prevalence of maternal obesity and inactivity. GDM is associated with an increased risk of maternal and infant short- and long-term ill-health. There is a positive linear association between increasing maternal glucose at oral glucose tolerance testing and risk of important perinatal outcomes, including cesarean section, large for gestational age, and infant adiposity. A “step-up” approach, where diet and lifestyle information is provided followed by pharmacological interventions as required to control and reduce hyperglycemia, is effective at reducing the risk of macrosomia, but treatment of GDM will increase demand on health services. There is limited evidence to suggest which identification strategy is best or what thresholds should be used to diagnose GDM or what the effects of different diagnostic strategies have on short- or long-term maternal and offspring outcomes. Trials of interventions in pregnancy aimed at preventing GDM have not demonstrated a benefit; therefore, trials are needed to evaluate interventions aimed at optimizing the health of all women of childbearing age, outside of pregnancy. A consistent, evidence-based, sustained approach to supporting women to live healthily, including the achievement of a normal body mass index before and after pregnancy, is urgently needed. © 2016 Farrar.


Forster A.,Bradford Institute for Health Research
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Research shows that stroke patients and their families are dissatisfied with the information provided and have a poor understanding of stroke and associated issues. To assess the effectiveness of information provision strategies in improving the outcome for stroke patients or their identified caregivers, or both. For this update we searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (June 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), the NHS Economic Evaluation Database (EED), and the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database (The Cochrane Library June, 2012), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2012), EMBASE (1980 to June 2012), CINAHL (1982 to June 2012) and PsycINFO (1974 to June 2012). We also searched ongoing trials registers, scanned bibliographies of relevant articles and books and contacted researchers. Randomised trials involving patients or carers of patients with a clinical diagnosis of stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) where an information intervention was compared with standard care, or where information and another therapy were compared with the other therapy alone. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility and methodological quality and extracted data. Primary outcomes were knowledge about stroke and stroke services, and impact on mood. We have added four new trials to this update. This review now includes 21 trials involving 2289 patient and 1290 carer participants. Nine trials evaluated a passive and 12 trials an active information intervention. Meta-analyses showed a significant effect in favour of the intervention on patient knowledge (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12 to 0.46, P < 0.001), carer knowledge (SMD 0.74, 95% CI 0.06 to 1.43, P = 0.03), one aspect of patient satisfaction (odds ratio (OR) 2.07, 95% CI 1.33 to 3.23, P = 0.001), and patient depression scores (mean difference (MD) -0.52, 95% CI -0.93 to -0.10, P = 0.01). There was no significant effect (P > 0.05) on number of cases of anxiety or depression in patients, carer mood or satisfaction, or death. Qualitative analyses found no strong evidence of an effect on other outcomes. Post-hoc subgroup analyses showed that active information had a significantly greater effect than passive information on patient mood but not on other outcomes. There is evidence that information improves patient and carer knowledge of stroke, aspects of patient satisfaction, and reduces patient depression scores. However, the reduction in depression scores was small and may not be clinically significant. Although the best way to provide information is still unclear there is some evidence that strategies that actively involve patients and carers and include planned follow-up for clarification and reinforcement have a greater effect on patient mood.

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