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Bradford, United Kingdom

Young J.,Bradford Institute for Health Research
European Geriatric Medicine | Year: 2011

There are an estimated half a million wheelchair users over the age of 60 in the UK. The wheelchairs are provided free of charge to users through 160 designated National Health Service Wheelchair Centres. Referral is from hospital consultants, general practitioners or accredited assessors who have undergone specific training. Most people are suitable for one of two types of standard wheelchairs: a self-propelling wheelchair or a transit (attendant) propelled wheelchair. People dependent on a wheelchair as their main form of mobility, or who have postural seating problems, are assessed in the wheelchair centres for a modular wheelchair that is capable of considerable individual customisation. People commonly report their wheelchair feels too heavy, or is difficult to get in and out of a car. These issues can be addressed by considered assessment and wheelchair modifications. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS and European Union Geriatric Medicine Society. All rights reserved. Source

Braithwaite J.,University of New South Wales | Marks D.,University of New South Wales | Taylor N.,Bradford Institute for Health Research
International Journal for Quality in Health Care | Year: 2014

Background. Getting greater levels of evidence into practice is a key problem for health systems, compounded by the volume of research produced. Implementation science aims to improve the adoption and spread of research evidence. A linked problem is how to enhance quality of care and patient safety based on evidence when care settings are complex adaptive systems. Our research question was: according to the implementation science literature, which common implementation factors are associated with improving the quality and safety of care for patients? Methods. We conducted a targeted search of key journals to examine implementation science in the quality and safety domain applying PRISMA procedures. Fifty-seven out of 466 references retrieved were considered relevant following the application of exclusion criteria. Included articles were subjected to content analysis. Three reviewers extracted and documented key characteristics of the papers. Grounded theory was used to distil key features of the literature to derive emergent success factors. Results. Eight success factors of implementation emerged: preparing for change, capacity for implementation-people, capacity for implementation-setting, types of implementation, resources, leverage, desirable implementation enabling features, and sustainability. Obstacles in implementation are the mirror image of these: for example, when people fail to prepare, have insufficient capacity for implementation or when the setting is resistant to change, then care quality is at risk, and patient safety can be compromised. Conclusions. This review of key studies in the quality and safety literature discusses the current state-of-play of implementation science applied to these domains. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; All rights reserved. Source

Sirriyeh R.,University of Leeds | Lawton R.,University of Leeds | Gardner P.,University of Leeds | Armitage G.,Bradford Institute for Health Research
Quality and Safety in Health Care | Year: 2010

Background: Previous research has established health professionals as secondary victims of medical error, with the identification of a range of emotional and psychological repercussions that may occur as a result of involvement in error.2 3 Due to the vast range of emotional and psychological outcomes, research to date has been inconsistent in the variables measured and tools used. Therefore, differing conclusions have been drawn as to the nature of the impact of error on professionals and the subsequent repercussions for their team, patients and healthcare institution. A systematic review was conducted. Methods Data sources were identified using database searches, with additional reference and hand searching. Eligibility criteria were applied to all studies identified, resulting in a total of 24 included studies. Quality assessment was conducted with the included studies using a tool that was developed as part of this research, but due to the limited number and diverse nature of studies, no exclusions were made on this basis. Results Review findings suggest that there is consistent evidence for the widespread impact of medical error on health professionals. Psychological repercussions may include negative states such as shame, self-doubt, anxiety and guilt. Despite much attention devoted to the assessment of negative outcomes, the potential for positive outcomes resulting from error also became apparent, with increased assertiveness, confidence and improved colleague relationships reported. Conclusion It is evident that involvement in a medical error can elicit a significant psychological response from the health professional involved. However, a lack of literature around coping and support, coupled with inconsistencies and weaknesses in methodology, may need be addressed in future work. Source

Deconinck F.J.A.,Ghent University | Deconinck F.J.A.,Manchester Metropolitan University | Smorenburg A.R.P.,Burke Cornell Medical Research Institute | Benham A.,Bradford Institute for Health Research | And 3 more authors.
Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair | Year: 2015

Background. Mirror visual feedback (MVF), a phenomenon where movement of one limb is perceived as movement of the other limb, has the capacity to alleviate phantom limb pain or promote motor recovery of the upper limbs after stroke. The tool has received great interest from health professionals; however, a clear understanding of the mechanisms underlying the neural recovery owing to MVF is lacking. Objective. We performed a systematic review to assess the effect of MVF on brain activation during a motor task. Methods. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases for neuroimaging studies investigating the effect of MVF on the brain. Key details for each study regarding participants, imaging methods, and results were extracted. Results. The database search yielded 347 article, of which we identified 33 suitable for inclusion. Compared with a control condition, MVF increases neural activity in areas involved with allocation of attention and cognitive control (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, S1 and S2, precuneus). Apart from activation in the superior temporal gyrus and premotor cortex, there is little evidence that MVF activates the mirror neuron system. MVF increases the excitability of the ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1) that projects to the "untrained" hand/arm. There is also evidence for ipsilateral projections from the contralateral M1 to the untrained/affected hand as a consequence of training with MVF. Conclusion. MVF can exert a strong influence on the motor network, mainly through increased cognitive penetration in action control, though the variance in methodology and the lack of studies that shed light on the functional connectivity between areas still limit insight into the actual underlying mechanisms. © The Author(s) 2014. Source

Forster A.,Bradford Institute for Health Research
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Research shows that stroke patients and their families are dissatisfied with the information provided and have a poor understanding of stroke and associated issues. To assess the effectiveness of information provision strategies in improving the outcome for stroke patients or their identified caregivers, or both. For this update we searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (June 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), the NHS Economic Evaluation Database (EED), and the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database (The Cochrane Library June, 2012), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2012), EMBASE (1980 to June 2012), CINAHL (1982 to June 2012) and PsycINFO (1974 to June 2012). We also searched ongoing trials registers, scanned bibliographies of relevant articles and books and contacted researchers. Randomised trials involving patients or carers of patients with a clinical diagnosis of stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) where an information intervention was compared with standard care, or where information and another therapy were compared with the other therapy alone. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility and methodological quality and extracted data. Primary outcomes were knowledge about stroke and stroke services, and impact on mood. We have added four new trials to this update. This review now includes 21 trials involving 2289 patient and 1290 carer participants. Nine trials evaluated a passive and 12 trials an active information intervention. Meta-analyses showed a significant effect in favour of the intervention on patient knowledge (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12 to 0.46, P < 0.001), carer knowledge (SMD 0.74, 95% CI 0.06 to 1.43, P = 0.03), one aspect of patient satisfaction (odds ratio (OR) 2.07, 95% CI 1.33 to 3.23, P = 0.001), and patient depression scores (mean difference (MD) -0.52, 95% CI -0.93 to -0.10, P = 0.01). There was no significant effect (P > 0.05) on number of cases of anxiety or depression in patients, carer mood or satisfaction, or death. Qualitative analyses found no strong evidence of an effect on other outcomes. Post-hoc subgroup analyses showed that active information had a significantly greater effect than passive information on patient mood but not on other outcomes. There is evidence that information improves patient and carer knowledge of stroke, aspects of patient satisfaction, and reduces patient depression scores. However, the reduction in depression scores was small and may not be clinically significant. Although the best way to provide information is still unclear there is some evidence that strategies that actively involve patients and carers and include planned follow-up for clarification and reinforcement have a greater effect on patient mood. Source

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