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Katz D.A.,Abbvie Inc. | Locke C.,Abbvie Inc. | Liu W.,Abbvie Inc. | Zhang J.,Abbvie Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research | Year: 2016

Background: ABT-436, a potent and selective arginine vasopressin (AVP) type 1B receptor (V1B) antagonist, has previously demonstrated basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis attenuation in man. A V1B antagonist is hypothesized as an alcohol-dependent treatment based on the role of the V1B receptor in stress regulation and the finding that stress is a trigger for relapse in alcoholics. A V1B antagonist has shown favorable effects in rat models of alcohol dependence. A single-dose clinical study was conducted to assess the potential for pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interaction between ABT-436 and alcohol. Methods: Twenty moderate alcohol drinkers each received the 4 possible combinations of a single 1,000 mg ABT-436 dose (or matching placebo) and a single 0.5 g/kg alcohol dose (or placebo for alcohol) in a double-blind, randomized, 4-period crossover study. Plasma ABT-436 and blood alcohol levels were measured to assess pharmacokinetic interactions. A computerized cognitive test battery (CDR System), Bond-Lader Visual Analog Scales scales, and a postural stability test were used to measure the effects of alcohol and the potential interaction with ABT-436. The pharmacologic effect of ABT-436 was assessed by measuring serum cortisol. Results: Neither ABT-436 nor alcohol affected the blood levels of the other. Alcohol reduced performance on 2 of 5 CDR System composite variables (power of attention, p = 0.002; quality of secondary episodic memory, p < 0.001), and decreased postural stability (p = 0.043). ABT-436 did not exacerbate those deleterious effects. ABT-436 reduced serum cortisol (p < 0.001), and alcohol did not significantly diminish this expected effect on the HPA axis. Conclusions: No pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interaction between ABT-436 and alcohol was observed. © 2016 Research Society on Alcoholism. Source


Grill J.D.,University of California at Irvine | Raman R.,University of California at San Diego | Ernstrom K.,University of California at San Diego | Aisen P.,University of California at San Diego | And 8 more authors.
Alzheimer's Research and Therapy | Year: 2015

Introduction: Most Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials enroll participants multinationally. Yet, few data exist to guide investigators and sponsors regarding the types of patients enrolled in these studies and whether participant characteristics vary by region. Methods: We used data derived from four multinational phase III trials in mild to moderate AD to examine whether regional differences exist with regard to participant demographics, safety reporting, and baseline scores on the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), the 11-item Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog11), the Clinical Dementia Rating scale Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB), the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living Inventory (ADCS-ADL), and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). We assigned 31 participating nations to 7 geographic regions: North America, South America/Mexico, Western Europe/Israel, Eastern Europe/Russia, Australia/South Africa, Asia, and Japan. Results: North America, Western Europe/Israel, and Australia/South Africa enrolled similar proportions of men, apolipoprotein E ε4 carriers, and participants with spouse study partners, whereas Asia, Eastern Europe/Russia, and South America/Mexico had lower proportions for these variables. North America and South America/Mexico enrolled older subjects, whereas Asia and South America/Mexico enrolled less-educated participants than the remaining regions. Approved AD therapy use differed among regions (range: 73% to 92%) and was highest in North America, Western Europe/Israel, and Japan. Dual therapy was most frequent in North America (48%). On the MMSE, North America, Western Europe/Israel, Japan, and Australia/South Africa had higher (better) scores, and Asia, South America/Mexico, and Eastern Europe/Russia had lower scores. Eastern Europe/Russia had more impaired ADAS-cog11 scores than all other regions. Eastern Europe/Russia and South America/Mexico had more impaired scores for the ADCS-ADL and the CDR-SB. Mean scores for the CDR-SB in Asia were milder than all regions except Japan. NPI scores were lower in Asia and Japan than in all other regions. Participants in North America and Western Europe/Israel reported more adverse events than those in Eastern Europe/Russia and Japan. Conclusions: These findings suggest that trial populations differ across geographic regions on most baseline characteristics and that multinational enrollment is associated with sample heterogeneity. The data provide initial guidance with regard to the regional differences that contribute to this heterogeneity and are important to consider when planning global trials. © 2015 Grill et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source


Snyder P.J.,Brown University | Kahle-Wrobleski K.,Eli Lilly and Company | Brannan S.,Takeda Development Center Americas Inc. | Miller D.S.,Bracket | And 9 more authors.
Alzheimer's and Dementia | Year: 2014

Several lines of evidence from Alzheimer's disease (AD) research continue to support the notion that the biological changes associated with AD are occurring possibly several decades before an individual will experience the cognitive and functional changes associated with the disease. The National Institute on Aging - Alzheimer's Association revised criteria for AD provided a framework for this new thinking. As a result of this growing understanding, several research efforts have launched or will be launching large secondary prevention trials in AD. These and other efforts have clearly demonstrated a need for better measures of cognitive and functional change in people with the earliest changes associated with AD. Recent draft guidance from the US Food and Drug Administration further elevated the importance of cognitive and functional assessments in early stage clinical trials by proposing that even in the pre-symptomatic stages of the disease, approval will be contingent on demonstrating clinical meaningfulness. The Alzheimer's Association's Research Roundtable addressed these issues at its fall meeting October 28-29, 2013, in Washington, D.C. The focus of the discussion included the need for improved cognitive and functional outcome measures for clinical of participants with preclinical AD and those diagnosed with Mild Cognitive Impairment due to AD. © 2014 The Alzheimer's Association. All rights reserved. Source


Wesnes K.A.,Wesnes Cognition Ltd. | Wesnes K.A.,Northumbria University | Wesnes K.A.,Swinburne University of Technology | Annas P.,Bracket | And 3 more authors.
Alzheimer's Research and Therapy | Year: 2014

Introduction. Emerging evidence suggests that decreased adult hippocampal neurogenesis represents an early critical event in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In mice, adult neurogenesis is reduced by knock-in alleles for human apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ∈4. Decreased dentate gyrus (DG) neural progenitor cells proliferation has been observed in the triple-transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD); this reduction being directly associated with the presence of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and an increase in the number of Aβ-containing neurons in the hippocampus. Cognitive tasks involving difficult pattern separations have been shown to reflect DG activity and thus potentially neurogenesis in both animals and man. This study involved the administration of a pattern separation paradigm to Alzheimer's patients to investigate relationships between task performance and both ApoE status and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ42 levels. Methods. The CDR System pattern separation task involves the presentation of pictures that must later be discriminated from closely similar pictures. This paper presents pattern separation data from 66 mild to moderate AD patients, of which 50 were genotyped and 65 in whom CSF Aβ42 was measured. Results: ApoE ∈4 homozygotes were not compromised on the easy pattern separations compared with the other patients, but they were statistically significantly poorer at the difficult separations. In all patients CSF Aβ42 correlated significantly with the ability to make the difficult discriminations, but not easier discriminations. Pattern separation speed correlated negatively with CSF Aβ42, and thus the association was not due to increased impulsivity. Conclusions: These are, to our knowledge, the first human pattern separation data to suggest a possible genetic link to poor hippocampal neurogenesis in AD, as well as a relationship to Aβ42. Therapies which target neurogenesis may thus be useful in preventing the early stages of AD, notably in ApoE ∈4 homocygotes. © 2014 Wesnes et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Jongen P.J.,MS4 Research Institute | Wesnes K.,Bracket | Wesnes K.,Swinburne University of Technology | Van Geel B.,Medisch Centrum Alkmaar | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

The role of cognitive domain dysfunction with respect to vocational changes in persons with Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) and early Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (eRRMS) is insufficiently known. We investigated thirty-three patients - 14 CIS, 19 eRRMS -, mean (standard deviation [SD]) time since diagnosis 13.5 (4.8) months and mean (SD) Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score 1.3 (1.1). Patients were assessed on the CDR System, a set of automated tests of cognitive function, which yielded scores for Power of Attention (ms), Continuity of Attention (#), Working Memory (SI), Episodic Memory (#) and Speed of Memory (ms). Work-related items and the confounding variables fatigue, depression, disease impact and self-efficacy, were assessed by self-report questionnaires. Patients had poorer Power of Attention compared to normative data (1187 [161.5] vs. 1070 [98.6]; P<0.0001) and slower Speed of Memory (4043 [830.6]) vs. 2937 [586.1]; P<0.0001). Power of Attention (Pearson r = -0.42; P<0.04), Working Memory (r = 0.42; P<0.04) and depression r = -0.41; P<0.05) correlated with number of days worked per week. Fatigue (r = -0.56; P<0.005), self-efficacy (r = 0.56; P<0.005) and disease impact (r = -0.46; P<0.05) correlated with number of hours worked per week. Persons who wished to work less had poorer Power of Attention (1247 vs. 1116 ms; P<0.02), those who wished to change job had poorer Episodic Memory (1.35 vs. 1.57; p<0.03). People who reduced working hours within 12 months after diagnosis had higher fatigue and disease impact, and lower self-efficacy. The findings of this pilot study indicate that one year after the diagnosis of CIS and RRMS Power of Attention and Speed of Memory are reduced, that Power of Attention and Memory are associated with a capability of working less hours, and that fatigue, depression and disease impact may negatively, and self-efficacy positively affect working hours. Source

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