Marseille, France
Marseille, France
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Appeltans W.,Flanders Marine Institute | Appeltans W.,Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO | Ahyong S.T.,South Australian Museum | Ahyong S.T.,University of New South Wales | And 124 more authors.
Current Biology | Year: 2012

Background: The question of how many marine species exist is important because it provides a metric for how much we do and do not know about life in the oceans. We have compiled the first register of the marine species of the world and used this baseline to estimate how many more species, partitioned among all major eukaryotic groups, may be discovered. Results: There are ∼226,000 eukaryotic marine species described. More species were described in the past decade (∼20,000) than in any previous one. The number of authors describing new species has been increasing at a faster rate than the number of new species described in the past six decades. We report that there are ∼170,000 synonyms, that 58,000-72,000 species are collected but not yet described, and that 482,000-741,000 more species have yet to be sampled. Molecular methods may add tens of thousands of cryptic species. Thus, there may be 0.7-1.0 million marine species. Past rates of description of new species indicate there may be 0.5 ± 0.2 million marine species. On average 37% (median 31%) of species in over 100 recent field studies around the world might be new to science. Conclusions: Currently, between one-third and two-thirds of marine species may be undescribed, and previous estimates of there being well over one million marine species appear highly unlikely. More species than ever before are being described annually by an increasing number of authors. If the current trend continues, most species will be discovered this century. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

De Broyer C.,Royal Belgian Institute Of Natural Sciences | Danis B.,Royal Belgian Institute Of Natural Sciences | Louise A.,National University of Ireland | Martin A.,University of Southampton | And 60 more authors.
Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography | Year: 2011

The IPY sister-projects CAML and SCAR-MarBIN provided a timely opportunity, a strong collaborative framework and an appropriate momentum to attempt assessing the "Known, Unknown and Unknowable" of Antarctic marine biodiversity. To allow assessing the known biodiversity, SCAR-MarBIN "Register of Antarctic Marine Species (RAMS)" was compiled and published by a panel of 64 taxonomic experts. Thanks to this outstanding expertise mobilized for the first time, an accurate list of more than 8100 valid species was compiled and an up-to-date systematic classification comprising more than 16,800 taxon names was established. This taxonomic information is progressively and systematically completed by species occurrence data, provided by literature, taxonomic and biogeographic databases, new data from CAML and other cruises, and museum collections. RAMS primary role was to establish a benchmark of the present taxonomic knowledge of the Southern Ocean biodiversity, particularly important in the context of the growing realization of potential impacts of the global change on Antarctic ecosystems. This, in turn, allowed detecting gaps in knowledge, taxonomic treatment and coverage, and estimating the importance of the taxonomic impediment, as well as the needs for more complete and efficient taxonomic tools. A second, but not less important, role of RAMS was to contribute to the "taxonomic backbone" of the SCAR-MarBIN, OBIS and GBIF networks, to establish a dynamic information system on Antarctic marine biodiversity for the future. The unknown part of the Southern Ocean biodiversity was approached by pointing out what remains to be explored and described in terms of geographical locations and bathymetric zones, habitats, or size classes of organisms. The growing importance of cryptic species is stressed, as they are more and more often detected by molecular studies in several taxa. Relying on RAMS results and on some case studies of particular model groups, the question of the potential number of species that remains to be discovered in the Southern Ocean is discussed. In terms of taxonomic inputs to the census of Southern Ocean biodiversity, the current rate of progress in inventorying the Antarctic marine species as well as the state of taxonomic resources and capacity were assessed. Different ways of improving the taxonomic inputs are suggested. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Stampar S.N.,University of Sao Paulo | Emig C.C.,BrachNet | Morandini A.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Kodja G.,Instituto Laje Viva | And 2 more authors.
Cahiers de Biologie Marine | Year: 2010

The conservation of emblematic threatened species is in highlight nowadays. Interestingly, few invertebrate groups attract scientific attention on this issue while they constitute the vast majority of animal biodiversity. Nevertheless, many invertebrate species are nowadays at risk of extinction. This means that plenty of species are currently disappearing out of sight. During a survey in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean tubes of an endangered species of cerianthid were sampled. This study reports for the very first time the occurrence of the species Phoronis australis in southwestern Atlantic waters and the association of phoronids with the genus Ceriantheomorphe. This raises questions on mutual extinction risks for symbiotic species and also on the criteria for their inclusion on Red Lists.

The genus Thecidea has been figured before it was described that gave rise to various and erroneous interpretations, in particular by English-writing authors. It must be undoubtedly attributed to DEFRANCE in CUVIER & BRONGNIART (1822). Four other descriptions derived from the original name Thecidea are nomen nullum, and are partially responsible for confusion before Thecidea was split in several new genera. Finally, only fossil species belong today to Thecidea. The history of the attribution of the author's name to Thecidea is described in detail. The type species and its synonyms, as well as the classification of the Thecidea are given.

Although RISSO's collection has not been found, the current list of twelve recent brachiopod species and thirteen fossil ones identified and described by RISSO (1826) in the marine and terrestrial vicinities of Nice deserves revision by taking into account the synonyms accepted today. Adding Argyrotheca cistellula reported in 1920, the list of the extant species of brachiopods collected in the Mediterranean Sea has remained the same until 1994, date from which it increases by two species. Three of the species described by RISSO as belonging to Terebratula have been attributed as new species to him: Joania cordata, Argyrotheca cuneata, Lacazella mediterranea, all three are type species of their genus. For the fossil species, only two were identified as synonyms for Terebratula terebratula. Criticized several times, sometimes too severely, for his works on the Mollusca, to which the Brachiopoda were attributed, RISSO (1826) as an amateur naturalist completed a honourable work on this latter group, entirely comparable with those of the majority of its contemporaries and more recent authors on this group.

Anomia turbinata, or conical Anomia (= Novocrania turbinata), was described by POLI (1795) in the bathyal environment off the coast of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Patella anomala MÜLLER, 1776 (= N. anomala) being considered a syno-nym. The history of this species, commonly considered as the Mediterranean form of N. anomala, will be described. Recently, several authors have described N. turbinata as a valid species on the basis of shell variations, as compared to N. anomala. After analysis of the taxonomic validity of these cha-racters, both species are considered as synonymous. That is supported by their occurrence in various localities, mainly in the continental shelf. Their synonymy has been corroborated by molecular analyses and is discussed with reference to the characteristics of the Mediterranean basins and their history sin-ce the Miocene.

Daniel OEHLERT (1849-1920) spent his entire career in Laval (Mayenne, France). His duties as a librarian of the city of Laval, then as curator of the museums of archaeology and natural history of Laval, allowed him freedom to focus on palaeontology and geology. He worked with his wife Pauline both in the field in the departments of Mayenne and Sarthe. In between field trips in the Mayenne and Sarthe, they shared the research during their long stays in Paris, working at the Sorbonne. OEHLERT's studies focused mainly on faunas of the Palaeozoic seas of Maine, Anjou and Cotentin. OEHLERT devoted himself primarily on describing crinoids, trilobites and brachiopods. In his collection, located in the Musée des Sciences (Laval, Mayenne, France), more than 20 new genera with more than 150 new invertebrate species have been described. His geological and stratigraphical work is largely original, involving almost exclusively Palaeozoic areas in the departments of Mayenne and Sarthe, and secondarily in the departments of Orne and Ille-et-Vilaine. In 1884, he took a position at the Service de la Carte géologique de France. More a hundred publications spread out from 1877 ended abruptly in 1911 with the death of his wife Pauline. A list of all his works is provided.

Emig C.C.,BrachNet | Bitner M.A.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Alvarez F.,University of Oviedo
Zootaxa | Year: 2013

The number of living brachiopod genera and species recorded to date, are 116 and 391, respectively. The phylum Brachiopoda is divided into three subphyla: Linguliformea, Craniiformea and Rhynchonelliformea. Although they were extremely common throughout the Paleozoic, today they are considered a minor phylum, and only five orders have extant representatives: Lingulida, with two families, 6 genera and 25 species; Craniida, with one family, 3 genera and 18 species; Rhynchonellida, with 6 families, 19 genera and 39 species; Thecideida, with two families, 6 genera and 22 species; and Terebratulida, with 18 families, 82 genera, and 287 species. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press.

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