Dhaka, Bangladesh
Dhaka, Bangladesh

BRAC University is a private university in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The university was established by BRAC in 2001 under the Private University Act 1992. BRAC University had its first convocation in January 2006. Sir Fazle Hasan Abed, KCMG is the Chairperson of the Board of Trustees of BRAC University. Wikipedia.

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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: HEALTH.2012.4.1-6 | Award Amount: 2.81M | Year: 2012

The MDGs succeeded in generating consensus on and mobilising resources towards agreed goals. They were less successful at clarifying responsibilities for achieving them. The MDG target on sharing global health innovation is particularly ambiguous about the allocation of responsibilities. The members of the consortium behind this proposal assume that the new goals for global health will need to be based on a broad global consensus on the goals, on accepted national and international responsibilities to achieve those goals, and on the kind of governance that is needed to ensure accountability for accepted responsibilities. They believe that the internationally agreed right to health provides a useful point of departure for the formulation of such a global consensus, that the goals should incorporate universal coverage, and that community input is critical to designing the goals. Consortium members will: * Assess the achievements and shortcomings of the MDG approach; * Consult communities whose health is most compromised on their essential needs and their perception of their entitlements under the right to health; * Assess the capacity of low and middle income countries to meet those needs and entitlements, including to identify where international assistance (financial and technical) or cooperation (on sharing innovation or avoiding the brain drain of health workers) is needed; * Analyse the international political economy of global health and global governance for health, to formulate international responsibility for global health; * Analyse, clarify, and re-affirm national responsibility for health, in the light of international responsibility for global health; * Propose new goals for global health, clarifying national and international responsibilities; * Provide suggestions for governance for global health to effectuate these responsibilities.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: HEALTH.2012.3.4-1 | Award Amount: 7.28M | Year: 2013

Countries striving to provide universal health care coverage and achieve the Millennium Development Goals are increasingly implementing close-to-community (CTC) health services. There is a need for health systems to understand the context and conditions in which these services operate in order to realise their potential. Working with some of the most respected and widely quoted close-to-community services we will identify how CTC services can best be delivered and document generic lessons for system development and strengthening. Building on a strong and exciting partnership, we aim to maximize the equity, effectiveness and efficiency of CTC services in rural and urban slum areas of six countries: Indonesia, Bangladesh, Mozambique, Ethiopia, Kenya and Malawi. We will conduct a situation analysis to guide development of research frameworks. This will be adapted and applied to produce a comprehensive inventory of potential constraints for CTC services. This baseline will guide cycles of interventions for service improvement. We will build capacity on three levels: at practitioner level to enable improved service to be delivered; at researcher level to empower the next generation of researchers in health systems; at policy level to enable transfer of research experience into policy, planning and practice. The interventions will be assessed using the framework to find out what works, in which context and why and what can be improved. Our impact on equity, efficiency and effectiveness will be evaluated using a combination of outcome and process indicators and multiple methods. Analyses will include community and policy maker perspectives and elaboration of CTC providers voices in health planning. Through conducting a robust inter-country analysis we will build much needed transferable policy and practice recommendations to strengthen CTC services and empower providers, researchers and policy makers.

Ahmed S.M.,Center for Equity and Health Systems | Ahmed S.M.,Brac University | Evans T.G.,The World Bank | Standing H.,University of Sussex | Mahmud S.,Brac University
The Lancet | Year: 2013

How do we explain the paradox that Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in health and human development, yet its achievements have taken place within a health system that is frequently characterised as weak, in terms of inadequate physical and human infrastructure and logistics, and low performing? We argue that the development of a highly pluralistic health system environment, defi ned by the participation of a multiplicity of diff erent stakeholders and agents and by ad hoc, diff used forms of management has contributed to these outcomes by creating conditions for rapid change. We use a combination of data from offi cial sources, research studies, case studies of specifi c innovations, and in-depth knowledge from our own long-term engagement with health sector issues in Bangladesh to lay out a conceptual framework for understanding pluralism and its outcomes. Although we argue that pluralism has had positive eff ects in terms of stimulating change and innovation, we also note its association with poor health systems governance and regulation, resulting in endemic problems such as overuse and misuse of drugs. Pluralism therefore requires active management that acknowledges and works with its polycentric nature. We identify four key areas where this management is needed: participatory governance, accountability and regulation, information systems, and capacity development. This approach challenges some mainstream frameworks for managing health systems, such as the building blocks approach of the WHO Health Systems Framework. However, as pluralism increasingly defi nes the nature and the challenge of 21st century health systems, the experience of Bangladesh is relevant to many countries across the world.

Murad M.H.,Brac University | Fatema S.,Daffodil International University
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2015

In this work some families of relativistic anisotropic charged fluid spheres have been obtained by solving the Einstein–Maxwell field equations with a preferred form of one of the metric potentials, and suitable forms of electric charge distribution and pressure anisotropy functions. The resulting equation of state (EOS) of the matter distribution has been obtained. Physical analysis shows that the relativistic stellar structure for the matter distribution considered in this work may reasonably model an electrically charged compact star whose energy density associated with the electric fields is on the same order of magnitude as the energy density of fluid matter itself (e.g., electrically charged bare strange stars). Furthermore these models permit a simple method of systematically fixing bounds on the maximum possible mass of cold compact electrically charged self-bound stars. It has been demonstrated, numerically, that the maximum compactness and mass increase in the presence of an electric field and anisotropic pressures. Based on the analytic models developed in this present work, the values of some relevant physical quantities have been calculated by assuming the estimated masses and radii of some well-known potential strange star candidates like PSR J1614-2230, PSR J1903+327, Vela X-1, and 4U 1820-30. © 2015, The Author(s).

Saquib N.,Brac University | Hossain E.,University of Manitoba | Kim D.,University of Southern California
IEEE Wireless Communications | Year: 2013

Improvement of cell coverage and network capacity are two major challenges for the evolving 4G cellular wireless communication networks such as LTE-Advanced networks. In this context, hierarchical layering of cells with macro base stations coexisting with low-power and shortrange base stations (corresponding to picocells or femtocells) in a service area is considered to be an efficient solution to enhance the spectralefficiency of the network per unit area. Also, such a hierarchical cell deployment, which is referred to as a heterogeneous network, or Het-Net, provides significant improvement in the coverage of indoor and cell edge users and ensures better QoS to the users. Interference mitigation between different layers is one of the key issues that needs to be resolved for successful deployment of HetNets. To this end, fast frequency response, FFR, is considered to be an efficient intercell interference coordination technique for OFDMA-based HetNets. This article focuses on evaluating three state-of-the-art FFR deployment schemes: strict FFR, soft FFR, and FFR-3 schemes for OFDMA-based two-tier HetNets comprising macrocells overlaid with femtocells. Also, a variation of the FFR-3 scheme, which is referred to as the optimal static FFR (OSFFR) scheme, is proposed. A broad comparison among all these FFR schemes is performed by using Monte Carlo simulations considering performance metrics such as outage probability, average network sum rate, and spectral efficiency. Simulation results show that, the average gains in spectral efficiency (b/s/Hz) of the network are significantly higher for the proposed scheme when compared to the strict FFR, soft FFR, and FFR-3 schemes. © 2002-2012 IEEE.

Background: In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent womens human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. Methods. The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. Results: This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on universal human rights are often removed from the reality of adolescent womens everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent womens understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. Conclusions: The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and rights exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal human rights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on the ground. These notions are far more complex in environments where married adolescent women and their families live in conditions of poverty and socioeconomic deprivation. © 2011 Rashid; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Hussain A.M.T.,Brac University | Tschirhart J.,University of Wyoming
Ecological Economics | Year: 2013

An integrated economic/ecological model is built to address tradeoffs between biodiversity conservation and two marketable rangeland ecosystem services: cattle grazing and elk hunting. The ecology is represented by an eleven species food web in which individual optimizing plants and animals engage in competitive and predator/prey relationships. The ecological model defines a steady-state set of sustainable grazing and hunting options, and for each option, biodiversity is measured using an index defined over the eleven species. In linking the ecology to the economics, social welfare depends on grazing profits and hunter net benefits. The problem can be stated as maximizing economic welfare over two ecosystem services, subject to their sustainable use and subject to a target level of biodiversity. A numerical application with economic and biological data from the Western United States is used to determine sustainable grazing and hunting options for alternative biodiversity levels, and to select the option that maximizes welfare. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Naher H.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Naher H.,Brac University | Abdullah F.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
AIP Advances | Year: 2013

In this article, new (G′G)-expansion method and new generalized (G′G)-expansion method is proposed to generate more general and abundant new exact traveling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. The novelty and advantages of these methods is exemplified by its implementation to the KdV equation. The results emphasize the power of proposed methods in providing distinct solutions of different physical structures in nonlinear science. Moreover, these methods could be more effectively used to deal with higher dimensional and higher order nonlinear evolution equations which frequently arise in many scientific real time application fields. © 2013 Copyright 2013 Author(s). This article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

Akther Hossain A.K.M.,Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology | Rahman M.L.,Brac University
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials | Year: 2011

Structural and magnetic properties of Cu substituted Ni 0.50-xCuxZn0.50Fe2O4 ferrites (where x=0.00.25) prepared by an auto combustion method have been investigated. The X-ray diffraction patterns of these compositions confirmed the formation of the single phase spinel structure. The lattice parameter increases with the increase in Cu2 content obeying Vegards law. The particle size of the starting powder compositions varied from 22 to 72 nm. The theoretical density increases with increase in copper content whereas the Néel temperature decreases. The bulk density, grain size and permeability increases up to a certain level of Cu2 substitution, beyond that all these properties decrease with increase in Cu2 content. The bulk density increases with increase in sintering temperatures up to 1250 °C for the parent composition, while for substituted compositions it increases up to 1200 °C. Due to substitution of Cu2, the real part of the initial permeability increases from 97 to ∼390 for the sample sintered at 1100 °C and from 450 to 920 for the sample sintered at 1300 °C. The ferrites with higher initial permeability have a relatively lower resonance frequency, which obey Snoeks law. The initial permeability strongly depends on average grain size and intragranular porosity. The saturation magnetization, M s, and the number of Bohr magneton, n(μB), decreases up to x=0.15 due to the reduction of the AB interaction in the AB 2O4 spinel type ferrites. Beyond that value of x, the Ms and the n(μB) values are enhanced. The substitution of Cu2 influences the magnetic parameters due to modification of the cation distribution. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Selim N.,Brac University
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition | Year: 2010

This article reports the results of a qualitative study conducted in two villages of Matlab to explore the cultural dimensions of depression. Participants included adult men and women with and without a history of depressive episode (n=42), formal and informal healthcare providers (n=6), and caregivers (n=2). Adults (n=10) with a history of depressive episode were selected from a 2005 survey conducted by ICDDR,B. A case vignette was used for eliciting local terms for depression, perceived causes, impact, and treatments. Hardly anyone recognized the term bishonnota (literal translation of depression) used in the past survey. The participants thought that the vignette was about chinta rog (worry illness), and they spoke of somatic symptoms in relation to this condition. When explored further, they mentioned sadness and psychological complaints. Men felt that it affected them more while women felt the opposite. They associated chinta rog with poverty and social issues with impacts on marriage, work, and education. From their responses, it seemed that they preferred a psychosocial framework attributing the cause to thoughts and emotions, resulting from social causes. Commonly-suggested treatments were more income, better relationships, and tablets. Former health providers were often the first choice for help-seeking. The study hopes to 'culturally inform' the formal healthcare providers and programme planners. © International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.

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