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Haque U.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh | Haque U.,Nagasaki University | Hashizume M.,Nagasaki University | Sunahara T.,Nagasaki University | And 4 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2010

Background. Malaria is endemic in 13 eastern districts where the overall infection prevalence is 3.97%. In 2006, Bangladesh received US$ 36.9 million from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) to support the national malaria control programme of Bangladesh. Objectives. The objective of this study was to i) clarify factors associated with treatment seeking behaviours of malaria ii) distribution of LLIN, and iii) re-treatment of ITN in remote area of a CHT district of Bangladesh two years after implementation of national control programme. Methods. All households of Rajasthali sub-district of Rangamati district (households about 5,322, population about 24,097), all BRAC health workers (n = 15), health facilities and drug vendors' locations were mapped. Distances from households to health facilities, BRAC health workers and drug vendors were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the associations between the choice of the treatment and the distance to various treatment sources, education, occupation and ethnicity. SaTScan was used to detect clustering of treatment-seeking approaches. Findings. LLIN distribution and the re-treatment of ITN exceeded target goals. The most common treatment facility for malaria-associated fever was malaria control programme led by BRAC and government (66.6%) followed by the drug vendor (48.8%). Conclusion. Closeness to health facilities run by the malaria control programme and drug vendors were significantly associated with the choice of treatment. A high proportion of people preferred drug vendors without having a proper diagnosis. Drug vendors are highly patronized and thus there is a need to improve their services for public health good. Otherwise it may cause incomplete treatment, misuse of anti-malarial drugs that will contribute to the risk of drug resistance and jeopardize the present malaria control efforts in Bangladesh. © 2010 Haque et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Yunus F.M.,BRAC Research and Evaluation Division | Rahman M.J.,Sanitation and Hygiene Research Group | Alam M.Z.,University of Texas at Arlington | Hore S.K.,B Chronic Disease Epidemiology and Genetics Research Group | And 2 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2014

Background: Chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with neoplastic, cardiovascular, endocrine, neuro-developmental disorders and can have an adverse effect on women's reproductive health outcomes. This study examined the relationship between arsenic skin lesions (a hallmark sign of chronic arsenic poisoning) and age of natural menopause (final menopausal period) in populations with high levels of arsenic exposure in Bangladesh. Methods. We compared menopausal age in two groups of women - with and without arsenic skin lesions; and presence of arsenic skin lesions was used as an indicator for chronic arsenic exposure. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 210 participants were randomly identified from two ongoing studies - participants with arsenic skin lesions were identified from an ongoing clinical trial and participants with no arsenic skin lesions were identified from an ongoing cohort study. Mean age of menopause between these two groups were calculated and compared. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the relationship between the status of the arsenic skin lesions and age of natural menopause in women. Results: Women with arsenic skin lesions were 1.5 years younger (p <0.001) at the time of menopause compared to those without arsenic skin lesions. After adjusting with contraceptive use, body mass index, urinary arsenic level and family history of premature menopause, the difference between the groups' age at menopause was 2.1 years earlier (p <0.001) for respondents with arsenic skin lesions. Conclusions: The study showed a statistically significant association between chronic exposure to arsenic and age at menopause. Heavily exposed women experienced menopause two years earlier than those with lower or no exposure. © 2014 Yunus et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Ghosh S.C.,BRAC Research Division Evaluation | Karim F.,BRAC Research and Evaluation Division
The Future of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Low-Income Countries: Innovation, Adaptation and Engagement in a Changing World - Proceedings of the 35th WEDC International Conference | Year: 2011

NGOs are playing a significant role to ameliorate the sanitation situation in Bangladesh. Multi-stage 30 cluster sampling was adopted to collect quantitative data and 4,200 households were visited from 10 purposively selected sub-districts with and without NGO-led WASH programme. In every sub-district a focus group discussion was conducted to collect relevant information supplementing the findings from quantitative study. The overall sanitation coverage in areas with NGO intervention was significantly (p 0.00]) higher than the areas without any such intervention. Logistic regression analyses showed that the existence of NGO-led programme, the level of education, poverty, land ownership and access to media had significant (p 0.00]) influence on sanitation practice. Financial crisis was reported to be the predominant reason for households not having their own sanitary latrine, where NGO assistance was sought for. People acknowledged the role of NGOs in raising awareness, increasing sanitary latrine use and reported NGO assistance necessary for 100 percent sanitation. Source


Islam Q.S.,BRAC Research and Evaluation Division | Ahmed S.M.,BRAC Research and Evaluation Division | Ahmed S.M.,Brac University | Islam M.A.,BRAC Health Nutrition and Population Programme | And 3 more authors.
International Health | Year: 2014

Background: BRAC (formerly Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee), in collaboration with the National Tuberculosis Control Programme, provides one full-day training on TB to make informal allopathic providers knowledgeable for managing TB in rural Bangladesh. This study explored the knowledge and practices of the providers receiving the above training in the control and prevention of TB. Methods: The study was conducted in 30 subdistricts, with 30 trained and 30 untrained providers randomly selected from each subdistrict. Approximately 3% (49/1800) did not provide complete information. Pre-tested structured and semi-structured questionnaires were used. Results: TB was commonly perceived as a disease of only males (66.1%, 1157/1751). Only one-quarter knew about the bacterial cause of TB. Very few providers (2.1%, 36) had adequate knowledge regarding prevention of TB. They also lacked knowledge about TB treatment duration (71.6%, 1253), the meaning of DOTS (directly observed treatment, short course) (26.0%, 455) and multidrug resistance (20.6%, 360). Antibiotics (79.7%, 1396) and cough syrup (75.0%, 1313) were commonly prescribed by providers despite symptoms suggestive of TB. However, 70.2% (613) and 74.5% (650) of trained providers' knowledge and practice scores were equal to or more than the mean scores (≥6.97 and ≥6.6, respectively), whereas they were only 49.5% (435) and 64.2% (563), respectively, among untrained providers (p<0.0001). Conclusions: Misperception, lack of knowledge and irrational use of antibiotics are challenges that need to be addressed for controlling and preventing TB efficiently. © The Author 2014. Source


Yunus F.M.,BRAC Research and Evaluation Division | Yunus F.M.,Brac University | Khan S.,BRAC Research and Evaluation Division | Chowdhury P.,BRAC Research and Evaluation Division | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2016

Arsenic contamination in drinking water has a detrimental impact on human health which profoundly impairs the quality of life. Despite recognition of the adverse health implications of arsenic toxicity, there have been few studies to date to suggest measures that could be taken to overcome arsenic contamination. After the statement in 2000 WHO Bulletin that Bangladesh has been experiencing the largest mass poisoning of population in history, we researched existing literature to assess the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. The literature reviewed related research that had been initiated and/or completed since the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) under four domains: (1) extent of arsenic contamination; (2) health consequences; (3) mitigation and technologies and (4) future directions. To this means, a review matrix was established for analysis of previous literature based on these four core domains. Our findings revealed that several high-quality research articles were produced at the beginning of the MDG period, but efforts have dwindled in recent years. Furthermore, there were only a few studies conducted that focused on developing suitable solutions for managing arsenic contamination. Although the government of Bangladesh has made its population’s access to safe drinking water a priority agenda item, there are still pockets of the population that continue to suffer from arsenic toxicity due to contaminated water supplies. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

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