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Melnyk J.P.,University of Guelph | Dreisoerner J.,Brabender GmbH and Co. KG | Bonomi F.,University of Milan | Marcone M.F.,University of Guelph | Seetharaman K.,University of Guelph
Food Research International

This study investigated differences in gluten aggregation time and gluten strength using the Hofmeister series in high shear-treated slurries. Two flours (15.1% and 10.6% protein) were evaluated by using a Gluten Peak Tester (GPT). Hofmeister anions including NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, and NaSCN at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.0M and cations including KCl, NaCl, NH4Cl, MgCl2, and CaCl2 at concentrations ranging from 0.0625 to 1.0M were used. The instrument applies high shear to a flour/salt solution slurry and measures torque and aggregation time to form gluten. Aggregation time using the GPT followed the order of the Hofmeister series, with minor effects at salt concentration <0.3M and increasing differences at higher salt concentrations. Torque increased with increasing concentration. Creating models of the trends using second and third order equations demonstrated that gluten aggregation follows a distinct natural law in the slurries. The study confirmed the potential of the high shear based method to be used a research tool to investigate gluten aggregation properties and to potentially predict functionality in baked product systems. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Bergmann C.,Hansen and Rosenthal KG | Schwarz M.,Brabender GmbH and Co. KG | Mongardi M.,Cabot Performance Materials Italy | Paley B.,Cancarb Ltd | Lacayo J.,Continental AG
Gummi, Fasern, Kunststoffe

The present work describes the replacement of DBP by Pionier TP 130 C in the determination of the OAN used to characterise the structure or aggregate morphology of carbon blacks. The OAN investigation was done by varying the testing oil, equipment and type of carbon blacks while using the same methodology. It is demonstrated that Pionier TP 130 C can achieve OAN values comparable to that of DBP for soft and hard blacks, as well as for thermal blacks. Source

Marti A.,University of Milan | D'Egidio M.G.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Dreisoerner J.,Brabender GmbH and Co. KG | Seetharaman K.,University of Guelph | Pagani M.A.,University of Milan
European Food Research and Technology

Semolina with high protein content and strong gluten is recognized as the best raw-material for pasta-products with a good cooking quality, while little consideration has been given to semolina dough elasticity when heating is applied. In this research, a new technique was developed by adapting the Glutograph (Brabender GmbH&Co., Duisburg, Germany) to measure the changes in elasticity induced by heating on a sheeted dough. The information obtained by this procedure was related to the firmness of cooked pasta. Starting from semolina of four durum wheat varieties with differences in protein quantity and quality, dough samples were prepared in a Farinograph at a hydration level of 35 %. Each dough was sheeted by a home-made pasta machine, obtaining disks of 5 cm diameter and 2.1 mm thickness. Stretching (10 s) and relaxation (30 s) cycles were applied repeatedly during the test time, while dough temperature was increased from 30 to 90 °C at 1.2 °C/min. For each peak recorded, stretching and recovery values were calculated and plotted against sample temperature. Both stretching and recovery curves were integrated and the loss of elasticity was calculated. Results showed as high elasticity loss during heating is related to low firmness of the related cooked pasta. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Melnyk J.P.,University of Guelph | Dreisoerner J.,Brabender GmbH and Co. KG | Marcone M.F.,University of Guelph | Seetharaman K.,University of Guelph
Journal of Cereal Science

The functional properties of wheat are largely dictated by composition and interactions of the gluten proteins. All flours contain gliadin and glutenin, but produce baked products of varying quality, which provides evidence that gluten proteins from different wheats possess different properties. A common method to study differences in gluten properties, which is utilized in this study, is fractionation/reconstitution experiments to understand how various gliadin to glutenin ratios and how fractions from different wheat sources affect gluten aggregation properties. Gliadin and glutenin from a vital wheat gluten were fractionated with 70% ethanol and reconstituted at various gliadin to glutenin ratios. Gliadin and glutenin from a Canadian eastern soft, eastern hard and western hard wheat (14% moisture) were fractionated and substituted between flours at the native gliadin to glutenin ratio. Gluten combinations were evaluated with a Gluten Peak Tester at constant temperature and mixing. Varying gliadin to glutenin ratio showed that 50:50 is optimal for fast gluten aggregation while amount of glutenin dictates strength. Substitution experiments showed that replacing good quality gluten fractions with those from a lower quality wheat decreases gluten quality, and vice versa. Data also showed that cultivar specific differences in gliadin and glutenin are more important in dictating gluten strength (torque), while gliadin to glutenin ratio dictates aggregation time (PMT) independent of the source of fractions. The study demonstrated the ability of the improved method to evaluate gluten aggregation by controlling for all variables except the one being tested. The data also revealed information about gluten aggregation properties never before seen. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Zhang B.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Zhang Y.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Dreisoerner J.,Brabender GmbH and Co. KG | Wei Y.,Beijing Institute of Technology
Journal of Food Engineering

To control the mechanical energy output by adjusting the screw configuration during soybean protein extrusion texturisation, the relationship between the screw configuration and the special mechanical energy was investigated. Different types of screw elements, element lengths and positions were designed and configured, while the other parameters were kept unchanged. The screw fill degree and specific mechanical energy output were detected. The results demonstrate that when the helix angle of conveying elements turns from forward (45) to reverse (-37.5), the disc width of the kneading elements decreases from 7.5 mm to 5 mm, and when the disc stagger angle turns from forward (45) and forward (90) to reverse (-45), the screw fill degree and specific mechanical energy increase. When the length of the reverse kneading element increases, the screw fill degree and specific mechanical energy increase. When the distance between the reversing knead element and the die increases or the element space between the reversing knead element increases, the specific mechanical energy appears to decrease. Thus, the elements with reverse helix or stagger angles, narrow kneading disc, long length and flow-restricting ability increase the screw fill degree and induce high special mechanical energy. The special mechanical energy increases when the reverse kneading element is located at the screw position where the material viscosity is relatively high during extrusion. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved Source

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