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Marinho R.C.N.,Federal University of Piauí | Nobrega R.S.A.,Federal University of Recôncavo da Bahia | Zilli J.E.,BR 465 | Xavier G.R.,BR 465 | And 4 more authors.
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2014

The objective of this work was to evaluate the contribution of efficient nitrogen-fixing rhizobial strains to grain yield of new cowpea cultivars, indicated for cultivation in the Brazilian Semiarid region, in the sub-medium of the São Francisco River Valley. Two experiments were set up at the irrigated perimeters of Mandacaru (Juazeiro, state of Bahia) and Bebedouro (Petrolina, state of Pernambuco). The treatments consisted of single inoculation of five rhizobial strains - BR 3267, BR 3262, INPA 03-11B, UFLA 03-84 (Bradyrhizobium sp.), and BR 3299T (Microvirga vignae) -, besides a treatment with nitrogen and a control without inoculation or N application. The following cowpea cultivars were evaluated: BRS Pujante, BRS Tapaihum, BRS Carijó, and BRS Acauã. A randomized complete block design, with four replicates, was used. Inoculated plants showed similar grain yield to the one observed with plants fertilized with 80 kg ha-1 N. The cultivars BRS Tapaihum and BRS Pujante stood out in grain yield and protein contents when inoculated, showing their potential for cultivation in the sub-medium of the São Francisco River Valley.

The project "O Ciclo das Rochas em Terras Fluminenses" (The Rock Cycle in Fluminenses Land) was created by the Department of Geosciences/UFRuralRJ and the Secretaria de Educação de Estado do Rio de Janeiro (State Department of Education of Rio de Janeiro) to promote an knowledge update of high school teachers. Its structure involves phases of individual and collective learning on key topics related to geological science. Subjects are discussed in modules offered over one semester through classroom and online tracking. The participants are encouraged to work with their students in getting data about the local geology, analyzing the landscape and collecting local rocks and minerals. The working groups are defined by the schools using their own criteria and each project is accompanied by a geology professor. The material collected by the groups is classified and discussed in terms of their origin, transformations, application in human life and other characteristics that apply to the samples. Students work with maps and images of their natal region, recognizing geological and geographic familiar features. Finally, students and teacher of all schools are grouped into a meeting to present and discuss their results and the diversity of their geological heritage.

Machado R.L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | de Resende A.S.,BR 465 | Campello E.F.C.,BR 465 | Franco A.A.,BR 465
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2010

The most advanced stage of water erosion, the gully, represents severe problems in different contexts, both in rural and urban environments. In the search for a stabilization of the process in a viable manner it is of utmost importance to assess the efficiency of evaluation methodologies. For this purpose, the efficiency of low-cost conservation practices were tested for the reduction of soil and nutrient losses caused by erosion from gullies in Pinheiral, state of Rio de Janeiro. The following areas were studied: gully recovered by means of physical and biological trategies; gullies in recovering stage, by means of physical strategies only, and gullies under no restoration treatment. During the summer of 2005/2006, the following data sets were collected for this study: soil classification of each of the eroded gully areas; planimetric and altimetric survey; determination of rain erosivity indexes; determination of amount of soil sediment; sediment grain size characteristics; natural amounts of nutrients Ca, Mg, K and P, as well as total C and N concentrations. The results for the three first measurements were 52.5, 20.5, and 29.0 Mg in the sediments from the gully without intervention, and of 1.0, 1.7 and 1.8 Mg from the gully with physical interventions, indicating an average reduction of 95%. The fully recovered gully produced no sediment during the period. The data of total nutrient loss from the three gullies under investigation showed reductions of 98% for the recovering gully, and 99% for the fully recovered one. As for the loss of nutrients, the data indicate a nutrient loss of 1,811 kg from for the non-treated gully. The use of physical and biological interventions made it possible to reduce overall nutrient loss by more than 96 %, over the entire rainy season, as compared to the non-treated gully. Results show that the methods used were effective in reducing soil and nutrient losses from gullies.

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