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Mehta S.,SMS Medical College | Mittal P.K.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Swami M.K.,BPS Government Medical College for Women
Depression Research and Treatment | Year: 2014

Introduction. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar affective disorder (BAD) are among the leading causes of disability. These are often associated with widespread impairments in all domains of functioning including relational, occupational, and social. The main aim of the study was to examine and compare nature and extent of psychosocial impairment of patients with MDD and BAD during depressive phase. Methodology. 96 patients (48 in MDD group and 48 in BAD group) were included in the study. Patients were recruited in depressive phase (moderate to severe depression). Patients having age outside 18-45 years, psychotic symptoms, mental retardation, and current comorbid medical or axis-1 psychiatric disorder were excluded. Psychosocial functioning was assessed using Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (LIFE-RIFT). Results. Domains of work, interpersonal relationship, life satisfaction, and recreation were all affected in both groups, but the groups showed significant difference in global psychosocial functioning score only (P=0.031) with BAD group showing more severe impairment. Conclusion. Bipolar depression causes higher global psychosocial impairment than unipolar depression. © 2014 Shubham Mehta et al.

Mehta S.,SMS Medical College | Tyagi A.,SMS Medical College | Swami M.K.,BPS Government Medical College for Women | Gupta S.,SMS Medical College | And 2 more authors.
East Asian Archives of Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Objective: Acute and transient psychotic disorder has been accepted as a distinct diagnostic entity in the ICD-10. However, there are few studies delineating its demographics and factors affecting its outcome. This study aimed to examine the socio-demographic profile of patients with acute and transient psychotic disorder and the variables associated with the onset of illness and their effect on illness outcome in an Indian setting. Methods: This was a retrospective study in which case notes of patients admitted from 1 January to 31 December 2012 and diagnosed with acute and transient psychotic disorder (according to the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria) were analysed. Socio-demographic variables and variables associated with the onset of illness were noted. Duration of hospital stay was used as a proxy measure for clinical outcome. Results: A total of 185 patient records were analysed. Overall, 49% of the patients were males and 51% were females. Most of the cases (60%) were aged between 20 and 39 years. The majority was married, unemployed, educated up to middle school, living in a nuclear family, and had a rural background. Age (p = 0.05) and marital status (p = 0.03) significantly affected the outcome. Overall, 46% of the patients had stress as a precipitating factor, 27% reported substance use, and 23% had a family history of psychiatric illness prior to the onset of their illness. The onset of illness was from May to October in 54% of the patients, with the duration of untreated illness ranging from 7 to 15 days in 38% of the patients. The clinical outcome was significantly affected by duration of untreated illness (p = 0.05). Conclusions: Acute and transient psychotic disorders show slight female preponderance and occur in early adulthood. There is no precipitating stress in most cases and shorter duration of untreated illness predicts favourable clinical outcome. © 2014 Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists.

Ganesh S.,Dr. Shroffs Charity Eye Hospital | Arora P.,Dayanand Medical College and Hospital | Sethi S.,BPS Government Medical College for Women | Gandhi T.K.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2014

Background: Cataracts are a major cause of childhood blindness globally. Although surgically treatable, it is unclear whether children would benefit from such interventions beyond the first few years of life, which are believed to constitute 'critical' periods for visual development.Aims To study visual acuity outcomes after late treatment of early-onset cataracts and also to determine whether there are longitudinal changes in postoperative acuity.Methods: We identified 53 children with dense cataracts with an onset within the first half-year after birth through a survey of over 20 000 rural children in India. All had accompanying nystagmus and were older than 8 years of age at the time of treatment. They underwent bilateral cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation. We then assessed their best-corrected visual acuity 6 weeks and 6 months after surgery.Results: 48 children from the pool of 53 showed improvement in their visual acuity after surgery. Our longitudinal assessments demonstrated further improvements in visual acuity for the majority of these children proceeding from the 6-week to 6-month assessment. Interestingly, older children in our subject pool did not differ significantly from the younger ones in the extent of improvement they exhibit.Conclusions: and relevance Our results demonstrate that not only can significant vision be acquired until late in childhood, but that neural processes underlying even basic aspects of vision like resolution acuity remain malleable until at least adolescence. These data argue for the provision of cataract treatment to all children, irrespective of their age.

Yadav S.,BPS Government Medical College for Women | Verma A.,PDM Dental College | Sachdeva A.,IP Dental College
International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Year: 2014

The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence of sensory impairment of the lingual nerves following lower third molar removal and to compare the outcome with various operative variables. A total of 1200 mandibular third molars were removed under local anaesthesia. Predictor variables were categorized as lingual flap retraction, tooth sectioning, and buccal guttering. The outcome variable was the presence or absence of lingual nerve impairment. Different operative techniques were performed to identify independent predictors. Of the 1200 patients, 67 (5.6%) experienced transient sensory impairment at the 1-week follow-up. In all cases this resolved completely during the study period, except for four (0.3%) patients who suffered permanent impairment of lingual nerve function. Factors that predicted lingual nerve injury were lingual flap retraction, tooth sectioning, and buccal guttering. The incidence of lingual nerve injury was greater when combinations of these operative variables were used. © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

Dahiya K.,Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS | Dhankhar R.,Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS | Madaan H.,BPS Government Medical College for Women | Singh V.,Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS | Arora K.,Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS
Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science | Year: 2012

Objectives: The mainstay of the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is radiotherapy, which acts by producing free radicals. Therefore, this study was planned to observe the effect of radiotherapy on oxidative stress in patients of HNSCC. Methods: This study was conducted on 50 histopathologically proven cases of HNSCC. The levels of nitric oxide, glutathione-S-transferase, and vitamin C were estimated colorimetrically before and after treatment in patients and in 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The results were compared statistically. Results: The levels of nitric oxide and glutathione-S-transferase were significantly higher in patents as compared to controls and increased significantly after treatment. Vitamin C levels were significantly lower in patients as compared to controls and decreased significantly after treatment. Conclusions: HNSCC leads to increased oxidative stress and treatment in the form of radiotherapy itself produces an accentuation of this stress. © 2012 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

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