Dharān Bāzār, Nepal
Dharān Bāzār, Nepal

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Chaturvedi A.,AIIMS | Sah B.P.,BPKIHS
Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2010

Background: Perioperative shivering is a common problem during anaesthesia. Apart from physical warming many drugs have also been used for prevention of shivering. Ketamine has been used for preventing shivering during anaesthesia in doses of 0.5 to 0.75mg kg1, but even these doses causes too much sedation and hallucination. Ondansetron (8 mg) has been recently evaluated for its perioperative antishivering effect in patients under anaethesia. Present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of low dose Ketamine (0.25mg kg 1) and Ondansetron (4 mg) for prevention of shivering during spinal anaesthesia. Patients & Methods: Total 120 patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery under spinal anaesthesia were included. 3ml of hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% was used for spinal anaesthesia. After intrathecal injection, the patients were randomly divided in 3 groups of 40 each who received Ketamine 0.25mg kg 1 or Ondansetron 4mg IV or Saline. Vitals, temperature and shivering scores were recorded every 5 minutes. Side effects i.e. hypotension, nausea and vomiting, sedation and hallucinations were also recorded. Results: Fall in temperature was more significant in saline and ondansetron group (gp) than in ketamine group at all time interval. Out of 40 patients, shivering was maximum & seen in 17 patients (42.50%) in saline gp, 4 patients (10%) in ondansetron gp and in only 1 patient (2.5%) in ketamine gp. Odd ratio of ketamine, ondansetron and saline are 1, 4.33 and 28.33 respectively which means that shivering in saline gp was 28.83 times higher than ketamine gp and 6.65 times higher than in ondansetron .Shivering rate was 4.33 times higher in ondansetron gp than in ketamine gp. Hypotension was lowest in ketamine gp (10%) in comparison to ondansetron gp (22.5%) and saline gp. (20%). Mild sedation was seen in almost all (95%) patients in ketamine gp, Conclusion: Prophylactic low dose ketamine (0.25mg kg1) and Ondansetron (4mg) significantly decreased shivering in patients undergoing spinal anaesthesia without significant side effects.

PubMed | Kathmandu University and BPKIHS
Type: | Journal: BMC research notes | Year: 2016

Violence against women is a global public health problem occurring in multitude of contexts and domestic violence is considered to be the most pervasive one. Poor enforcement of policies, limitation of researches and expertise in this field largely accounts for persistence of this problem and nature of domestic violence and its associated factors are poorly understood.This research aimed to estimate the magnitude of different forms of domestic violence and identify its associated factors.Community based cross sectional study was conducted among 355 married women of reproductive age group of Kusheshwor, Sindhuli, Nepal. The questionnaire adapted from the World Health Organization Multi-Country Study was used for the face to face interviews. Occurrence of current domestic violence was used as outcome variable in logistic regression. Descriptive and multivariate analysis were performed in order to assess the magnitude of domestic violence and to identify its associated factors respectively.Self-reported lifetime prevalence of physical violence was 29.6% and past year prevalence was 15.2%, while corresponding figures for sexual violence were 6.8 and 2.3%, and for psychological violence were 31.0 and 18.3%. Lifetime domestic violence was 38.6% while in past 12 months, prevalence was 23.1%. Furthermore, 12.4% of women were experiencing all forms of violence concurrently. Women with controlling husband and having poor mental health were found to be at higher risk of domestic violence.Domestic violence is still rampant in our society with several forms of violence occurring together. In a country like Nepal, differentials power in relationship and poor mental health was found to be positively associated with violent episodes. This study highlights the infringement of women rights which can be the cause for serious public health consequences.

PubMed | Nepalese Army Institute of Health Science and BPKIHS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council | Year: 2016

Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) offers an opportunity to improve the prognosis and quality of life of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). However, inability to achieve adherence even after drug introduction in Nepal is a matter of concern. Some efforts are to be applied in order to lend a hand to identify and minimize these problems. This study aims to assess the problems faced by antiretroviral drug users attending ART centers of Kathmandu.A descriptive study was carried out in Sukraraj Tropical and Infectious Disease Control Hospital, Teku and Bir Hospital in 2071. Non-probability convenience sampling technique was used to recruit 82 respondents. Semi-structured questionnaire was used for conducting the interview.The overall problems faced by antiretroviral drug users include side-effects of drugs (65.9%), long waiting time (24.4%), unsatisfactory service (4.9%), geographical (68.3%) and financial barrier (25.6%), etc. Few were turned off from social/religious (70.7%) and recreational activities (51.2%). Absence of disclosure (14.6%), lack of spousal support (10.9%), humiliation (34.1%), etc. were also present. Stigmatization materializes as having to lose job (8.5%), feeling of ashamed (30.5%), feeling of isolation (34.1%), etc. Adherence towards medicine was found to be 86.5%.ART is a long term process and to achieve it rationally, a user has to cope with lots of problems, associated not only with physical health but also with outcomes of psychosocial issue. Further worsening of the situation is due to financial constraints. Policy making, planning and service delivery seek improvement in various steps. Awareness is another demand to end psychosocial discrimination.

Nepal Medical College journal : NMCJ | Year: 2010

Eclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity around the world. Magnesium sulphate is used as primary agent in the treatment of seizure in eclampsia. Its dosage and frequent painful injection makes it a difficult drug for the patient. This study was carried out in one of the biggest referral centre of Nepal to study the suitability of different dosage schedule for our patient. A randomized controlled trial was carried out in the Obstetric Unit of BP Koirala Institute of Health Science (BPKIHS) over the span of 1.5 years. A total of 80 eclamptic women were randomized to receive either standard Pritchard Regimen (loading and maintenance) or Loading dose of magnesium sulphate. Both groups were evaluated for recurrence of seizures and outcomes. There were no recurrent seizures in standard regimen group. There were 2 patients with recurrent seizure in loading dose group. (p=0.184) Loading dose of magnesium sulphate is a good alternative for standard Pritchard regimen. It avoids multiple painful injections of magnesium Sulphate.

Bajaj B.K.,Dr Rml Hospital | Chaudhary S.,BPKIHS | Shrestha R.,BPKIHS
Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice | Year: 2013

Background: The understanding and management of neurological disorders is undergoing revolutionary changes over the last three decades in the background of ever increasing advances in medical technologies, diagnostic techniques, therapeutic processes and, molecular and genetic medicine. The fruits of these advances can reach patients only if the psychosocial hurdles in their delivery are identified, acknowledged and addressed. Aim: To explore the beliefs and practices of patients with neurological disorders in a tertiary care center in the eastern Nepal. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients attending neurology/medicine outpatient for neurological disorders were interviewed about their beliefs regarding the triggering factors, causation and treatment-seeking behavior particularly from traditional healers. Result: Of the 100 patients (49 males, 51 females) recruited in the study, 51% expressed having ′no idea′ about their illness. Only 20% patients gave medically congruent explanation for their illness. Psychological factors were attributed as triggering factors by 16% of patients, of which two-thirds were females. Chance, destiny and ′jadu tona′ topped the list of triggering factors. Forty-four percent patients had sought help of traditional faith healers (′Dhami Jhakri′) before seeking medical help. Traditional faith healers were approached by patients irrespective of their educational background. Fifty-nine percent of patients who first sought traditional faith healers, believed in ′jadu-tona′. Of those interviewed, 16% were planning to go to a faith healer in near future. Conclusion: The beliefs of patients with neurological disorders frequently do not conform to current medical opinion. There is need for greater communication and education of patients by their treating physicians.

Subedi A.,BPKIHS | Bhattarai B.,BPKIHS | Biswas B.K.,North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health and Medical science | Khatiwada S.,BPKIHS
Korean Journal of Pain | Year: 2011

Due to its complex pathophysiology and wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, the diagnosis of CRPS is often missed in the early stage by primary care physicians. After being treated by a primary care physician for 5 months for chronic cellulitis, a 16-year-old girl was referred to our hospital with features of type-1 CRPS of the right upper extremity. Inability to diagnose early caused prolonged suffering to the girl with all the consequence of CRPS. The patient responded well with marked functional recovery from multimodal therapy. Ability to distinguish CRPS from other pain conditions, referral for specialty care at the appropriate time and full awareness of this condition and its clinical features among various healthcare professionals are essential in reducing patient suffering and stopping its progression towards difficult-to-treat situations. © The Korean Pain Society, 2011.

Maskey R.,BPKIHS
Kathmandu University Medical Journal | Year: 2014

New onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT) is a well known complication following solid organ transplantation and has been reported to occur in 4% to 25% of renal transplant recipients, 2.5% to 25% of liver transplant recipients, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection between 40% and 60% and 2% to 53% of all solid organ transplants. This variation in the reported incidence may be because of lack of a universal agreement on the definition of NODAT, the duration of followup, and the presence of modifiable and non-modifiable risks factors. Moreover, reduced patient survival and accelerated graft loss have been reported with NODAT. In our country also there is increasing in number of kidney transplants patients and along with that there is chance of development of NODA. It is better to detect the NODATS early. So in this article I tried to presents an overview of the literature on the current diagnostic criteria for NODAT and discuss suggested risk factors for the development of NODAT, its potential pathogenic mechanisms, and its impact on post-transplant outcomes after solid organ transplantation. © 2014, Kathmandu University. All rights reserved.

Type: Journal Article | Journal: JNMA; journal of the Nepal Medical Association | Year: 2016

Mental health problem is common and ubiquitous. Mental illness cuts across all sections of society, irrespective of socio-economic status. Recent international survey showed a varying prevalence rates ranged (4.7%- 12.0%). The Community study in Nepal yielded prevalence rate of mental illness at 14.0%.This is a descriptive, epidemiologic study with systematic randomization sampling.Of 911 respondents majority was married (76.1%), of age group 20-59 yrs. Overall, 113 (12.4%) respondents had at least one psychiatric disorder and the commonest were: Depression, Anxiety disorders, Alcohol use disorders with 1.9% had seizure/epilepsy.Community prevalence rate of some common psychiatric disorders is high which calls for special attention to address depressive and alcohol related disorder from all quarters of society particularly from government.

PubMed | TUTH, Government Medical College, PAHS and BPKIHS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Head & face medicine | Year: 2016

To assess, analyze and compare the results of graft uptake using Tragal Cartilage-Perichondrium Composite (TCPC) graft with Temporalis Fascia (TF) graft in patients who undergoing surgery for chronic otitis media - squamous type.Patients aged 13years and above with diagnosis of chronic otitis media - squamous type undergoing modified radical mastoidectomy, either primary or revision surgery with grafting of tympanic membrane (TM) and patients undergoing excision of postero-superior retraction pocket (PSRP) were included in this study. Patients were divided in two groups: Group A-patients undergoing TCPC graft and Group B -patients undergoing TF graft. Graft uptake results were assessed between 8-12 weeks of surgery.In both Groups there were 30 patients each. In Group A successful graft uptake was seen in 27 patients (90%) and failure of graft uptake was seen in 3 patients(10%). In Group B successful graft uptake was seen in 28 patients (93.3%) and failure in 2 patients (6.67%).Out of the total 60 patients, 11 patients had PSRP. All 6 patients with PSRP in Group A had successful graft uptake and no retraction. Among the 5 patients with PSRP in Group B all patients had sucessful graft uptake, however, in 2 patients retraction of the tympanic membrane was seen similar to the preoperative findings.There was no statistical difference (p=0.433) between the use of temporalis fascia or tragal cartilage perichondrium in patients undergoing surgery for chronic otitis media - squamous type.

Type: Journal Article | Journal: JNMA; journal of the Nepal Medical Association | Year: 2016

Perioperative adverse events are more common in children compared to adult population. Reporting an adverse event proves effective in identifying problems and helps in prevention and early management. Our objective was to identify the types, incidence, and the time of occurrence of perioperative adverse event. We also aimed to find out whether the occurrence of the types of adverse events differ in children below and above five years.This was a prospective study in 242, ASA Physical Status I and II children aged day one to 14 years, receiving general anesthesia with laryngeal mask airway for various elective surgeries. Adverse events observed in the perioperative period were recorded.Adverse events related to respiratory system (n=26, 55%) were the most common followed by cardiovascular system (n= 14, 30%). Adverse events were observed in 24(10%) children in the operating room and in 20 (8%) children in the post anaesthesia care unit. In the operating room, majority (14 of 27, 52%) of the events occurred immediately after removal of laryngeal mask airway. Respiratory events were more common in children below five years (p=0.007), whereas cardiac events were more common in children above five years (p=0.02).The commonest adverse event in children is related to respiratory system. Adverse events occur more frequently in the operating room, mostly immediately after removal of laryngeal mask airway. Respiratory events are more frequent in children below five years whereas cardiac events are more frequent in children above five years.

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