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Berriman A.D.C.,University of Liverpool | Clancy D.,University of Liverpool | Clough H.E.,University of Liverpool | Armstrong D.,BPEX | Christley R.M.,University of Liverpool
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Salmonella spp are a major foodborne zoonotic cause of human illness. Consumption of pork products is believed to be a major source of human salmonellosis and Salmonella control throughout the food-chain is recommended. A number of on-farm interventions have been proposed, and some have been implemented in order to try to achieve Salmonella control. In this study we utilize previously developed models describing Salmonella dynamics to investigate the potential effects of a range of these on-farm interventions. As the models indicated that the number of bacteria shed in the faeces of an infectious animal was a key factor, interventions applied within a high-shedding scenario were also analysed. From simulation of the model, the probability of infection after Salmonella exposure was found to be a key driver of Salmonella transmission. The model also highlighted that minimising physiological stress can have a large effect but only when shedding levels are not excessive. When shedding was high, weekly cleaning and disinfection was not effective in Salmonella control. However it is possible that cleaning may have an effect if conducted more often. Furthermore, separating infectious animals, shedding bacteria at a high rate, from the rest of the population was found to be able to minimise the spread of Salmonella. © 2013 Berriman et al.


Pullar D.,DairyCo | Allen N.,EBLEX | Sloyan M.,BPEX
Nutrition Bulletin | Year: 2011

Meat and milk production generally gets a bad press when it comes to discussions around climate change and food production. However, with a rising population, a balance has to be found between the environmental cost of producing and the benefits in terms of food security. Consequently, sustainable production is the byword. The beef, sheep meat, pig meat and dairy industries all have specific challenges in work to reduce their environmental impact. This paper examines some of these challenges, the research which has been undertaken into their scale, routes being exploited to improve efficiency and what gains have already been achieved. It also looks at some of the mitigating factors of dairy and livestock production that help mitigate any environmental costs and ensure we are making the most efficient use of available land. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 British Nutrition Foundation.


Douglas S.L.,Northumbria University | Szyszka O.,Northumbria University | Stoddart K.,BPEX | Edwards S.A.,Northumbria University | Kyriazakis I.,Northumbria University
Animal | Year: 2015

A meta-analysis on the effects of management and animal-based factors on the performance and feed efficiency of growing pigs can provide information on single factor and interaction effects absent in individual studies. This study analysed the effects of such factors on average daily gain (ADG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of grower and finisher pigs. The multivariate models identified significant effects of: (1) bedding (P<0.01), stage of growth (P<0.001) and the interaction bedding×lysine (P<0.001) on ADG. ADG was higher on straw compared with no bedding (710 v. 605 g/day). (2) FI was significantly affected by stage of growth (P<0.01), bedding (P<0.01), group composition (P<0.05), group size (P<0.01), feed CP content (P<0.01), ambient temperature (P<0.01) and the interaction between floor space and feed energy content (P<0.001). Pigs housed on straw had a lower FI in comparison with those without (1.44 v. 2.04 kg/day); a higher FI was seen for pigs separated by gender in comparison with mixed groups (2.05 v. 1.65 kg/day); FI had a negative linear relationship with group size, the CP content of the feed and ambient temperature. (3) Stage of growth (P<0.001), feed CP (P<0.001) and lysine content (P<0.001), ambient temperature (P<0.001) and feed crude fibre (CF) content (P<0.01) significantly affected FCR; there were no significant interactions between any factors on this trait. There was an improvement in FCR at higher ambient temperatures, increased feed CP and lysine content, but a deterioration of FCR at higher CF contents. For ADG, the interaction of bedding×lysine was caused by pigs housed without bedding (straw) having higher ADG when on a feed lower in lysine, whereas those with bedding had a higher ADG when on a feed higher in lysine. Interaction effects on FI were caused by animals with the least amount of floor space having a higher FI when given a feed with a low metabolisable energy (ME) content, in contrast to all other pigs, which showed a higher FI with increased ME content. The meta-analysis confirmed the significant effect of several well-known factors on the performance and efficiency of grower and finisher pigs, the effects of some less established ones and, importantly, the interactions between such factors. © The Animal Consortium 2015.


Smith L.A.,SRUC | Houdijk J.G.M.,SRUC | Homer D.,BPEX | Kyriazakis I.,SRUC | Kyriazakis I.,Newcastle University
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2013

To reduce reliance on imported soybean meal (SBM) in temperate environments, pea and faba bean may be alternative protein sources for pig diets. We assessed the effects of dietary pea and faba bean inclusion on grower and finisher pig performance and carcass quality. There were 9 dietary treatments tested on both grower (30 to 60 kg) and finisher (60 to 100 kg) pigs in a dose response feeding trial. The control diet included SBM at 14 and 12% for grower and finisher pigs, respectively, whereas in the test diets, pea or faba bean were included at 7.5, 15, 22.5, and 30%, gradually and completely replacing SBM. Diets were formulated to be isoenergetic for NE and with the same standard ileal digestible Lys content. After a 1-wk adaptation period, each diet was available on an ad libitum basis to 4 pens of pigs with 4 pigs per pen (2 entire males and 2 females) for 4 wk. Weekly BW for individual pigs, and pen intakes were recorded to assess ADG, ADFI, and G:F. Finisher pigs were then slaughtered at a commercial slaughter house to record carcass quality and assess skatole and indole concentration in the backfat. There were no effects (P > 0.10) on grower ADG, ADFI, and G:F, but pulse inclusion reduced finisher ADG (P = 0.04), with a quadratic effect of pulse inclusion (P = 0.03), as ADG tended to be reduced over initial inclusion levels only. There were no associated effects (P > 0.10) on ADFI or G:F, and pea and faba bean diets resulted in similar finisher performance. Increasing pulse inclusion linearly increased fecal DM content both in grower pigs (P = 0.02) and finisher pigs (P < 0.01). There were no effects on carcass quality or backfat skatole concentrations, but indole concentration was linearly reduced with increasing pulse inclusion (P = 0.05). It is concluded that pea and faba bean may be a viable alternative to SBM in grower and finisher pig diets. © 2013 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.


Bunger L.,SAC | Lambe N.,SAC | McLean K.,SAC | Cesaro G.,University of Padua | And 8 more authors.
Acta Agriculturae Slovenica | Year: 2012

The EU nitrate directive and the increasing cost of protein sources are leading farmers to reduce the nitrogen content in livestock feed. UK pig production often employs high protein ration to ensure high growth rate and low fat deposition. The aim was to compare the performances of pigs of a lean genotype fed with a conventional (C) or 2 low protein (LP) diets, lysine supplemented (LP1) or not (LP2). 64 animals on each diet were reared from 40 to 115 kg and fed ad-libitum. Liveweights (LW) and feed intake (FI) were recorded and after slaughter backfat (P2 site) thickness was measured and samples of longissimus muscle were analysed for total fatty acids. Pen-based data were analysed examining diet and batch as main factors. There were no significant diet effects on FI. Pigs on LP2 had a lower average daily weight gain (ADG) and higher feed conversion ratio (FCR) than C or LP1 from 60 kg onwards. Between diet strategies there were no significant differences in backfat thickness, but body fat deposition was higher in the LP2 group, followed by the LP1, and C the lowest. Results confirm that the LP1 strategy allows growth performance similar to the C diet but with 11% higher intramuscular fat (IMF). Pigs on LP2 diet show an increased body fat and IMF, although subcutaneous fat thickness was little affected. LP1 results indicate that reduced nitrogen intake (C vs. LP1 by 11 to 15%) can be achieved without compromising the growth performance, however feed conversion is significantly poorer (-6%) compared to the C diet probably due to amino acids (AA) deficiencies.

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