Stefanakis A.I.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research |
Seeger E.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research |
Dorer C.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research |
Sinke A.,BP International Ltd |
Thullner M.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2016
Groundwater contaminated with various organic and inorganic pollutants is a major issue especially in historic industrial areas with chemical industries and refineries. In this study, Constructed Wetlands, as an ecological and environmentally sustainable alternative, were tested at pilot-scale for the removal of phenolic compounds and petroleum derivatives from contaminated groundwater in a pump-and-treat remediation research facility in Germany. Three horizontal subsurface-flow Constructed Wetlands (two planted, one unplanted) were fed with contaminated groundwater containing methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), benzene and ammonia. In two of the beds, a solution of phenol and m-cresol (15 and 2 mg/L or 314.5 and 45.5 mg/m2/d, respectively) was injected to the groundwater inflow. Results showed a complete removal of the two phenolic compounds in the beds without any alteration in the MTBE and benzene removal rates. This indicated that Constructed Wetlands are versatile and can be used to effectively treat different pollutants simultaneously. Higher contaminant removal efficiency of planted systems confirms the positive role of plants presence and their ability to promote biodegradation. Spatial distribution analyses showed that the major portion of the removal took place in the first part of wetland length, which indicated that the systems could potentially deal with higher loads and can be used to optimize the system design. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Morneau R.A.,Morneau Consulting |
Little J.W.H.,BP International Ltd
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Intelligent Energy International 2012 | Year: 2012
Many industries, including the Energy Industry, are leveraging virtual world based technologies to enhance training and situational understanding. The phrase "a picture is worth 1000 words" is implicitly understood because "seeing" helps crystallize concepts making more transparent the ambiguity of the spoken word. Virtual Worlds are 3-D immersive environments, which allow workers to perform tasks and collaborate within a virtual representation of their normal work environment. Virtual world technologies represent a step forward in understanding work process complexities within a collaborative environment providing workers with the ability to be active participants, through their avatars, within a virtual representation of the world in which they work. Achieving operational excellence requires a broad, holistic view of all operational aspects. Current state-of-the-art methodology calls for assembling various data feeds into complex dashboards, which may not bring clarity to operational situations. And, dashboards do little to help one understand the implications associated with various work processes behind the data feeds. While dashboards are a step in the right direction and are certainly better than having to find the information in different isolated systems they still fall short in providing operational awareness for complex multifaceted work processes. This is especially true in our facilities, which are large complex environments. New facilities and major capital projects present their own opportunities. Our challenges are further complicated by our multinational workforce, which does not have a single common first language. Work done at Harvard University has found that virtual world technologies offer advantages in these circumstances for learning. Operational excellence is brought about by operational awareness. Operational awareness is brought about by seeing and interacting with the data within its proper context. This paper will present how virtual reality based technologies can reduce ambiguity and enable contextual operational awareness which helps achieve operational excellence, illustrating that seeing and doing within the work process context increases understanding. The digital oilfield and digital plant can be intelligently exposed with virtual reality technologies. Copyright 2012, Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Mutzke J.,University of Oxford |
Scott B.,University of Oxford |
Stone R.,University of Oxford |
Williams J.,BP International Ltd
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2016
Knocking combustion places a major limit on the performance and efficiency of spark ignition engines. Spontaneous ignition of the unburned air-fuel mixture ahead of the flame front leads to a rapid release of energy, which produces pressure waves that cause the engine structure to vibrate at its natural frequencies and produce an audible 'pinging' sound. In extreme cases of knock, increased temperatures and pressures in the cylinder can cause severe engine damage. Damage is thought to be caused by thermal strain effects that are directly related to the heat flux. Since it will be the maximum values that are potentially the most damaging, then the heat flux needs to be measured on a cycle-by-cycle basis. Previous work has correlated heat flux with the pressure fluctuations on an average basis, but the work here shows a correlation on a cycle-by-cycle basis. The in-cylinder pressure and surface temperature were measured using a pressure transducer and eroding-type thermocouple. These sensors were installed side-by-side at the surface of the cylinder in order to investigate the relationship between knock and heat flux on a cycle-by-cycle basis. A finite difference method was implemented to solve the one-dimensional unsteady heat conduction equation and calculate the temperature distribution away from the surface of the combustion chamber, and thus the instantaneous heat flux. The knock intensity was varied by controlling the fuel quality, compression ratio, ignition timing and air-fuel ratio. The measured heat flux was compared with pressure-based knock indices and it was found that as knock intensity increases, the correlation with peak heat flux became stronger. Results from different fuels and engine operating conditions did not collapse onto the same trend line. At higher speeds and higher compression ratios the heat flux was higher at a given level of knock intensity. The co-location of the pressure transducer and heat flux sensor meant that a correlation was found on a cycle-by-cycle basis. © 2016 SAE International.
Gray T.,Gray Geophysical Ltd |
Puzrin A.,ETH Zurich |
Hill A.,BP International Ltd
Proceedings of the Annual Offshore Technology Conference | Year: 2015
Geophysical observations of palaeolandslides in offshore settings include long and relatively thin failures that occur on very mild slopes. Back analysis of such failures using the limiting equilibrium approach and measured geotechnical soil properties is typically used to inform the likely causes of past failures. An assessment can then be made of the present day significance of causal factors (e.g. the presence of excess pore water pressure), with the limiting equilibrium approach used to assess factors of safety for present-day slopes and predict the potential size of any future failures. However, for long, thin slides, use of the limiting equilibrium approach can lead to the conclusion that either a significantly large seismic trigger or other, abnormal geological condition was required to initiate failure. A result has been the focusing of academic research into other failure causes and conditioning factors. Further, the stability of the present day seabed for offshore developments can be overestimated, given the rarity of large seismic events in many areas and geotechnical measurements that not always show abnormal soil conditions. The shear band propagation approach offers an alternative view, where an initial small failure can grow into a larger failure at the point of initiation. A result is that an explanation of the conditions leading to failure can be attributed to many submarine landslides. Further, accounting for the potential propagation of a shear band in the future prediction of submarine landslides can result in greater predicted failure sizes and lower factors of safety than using limiting equilibrium only. The application of the shear band propagation approach to back analyse a palaeolandslide in the ACG Field, Caspian Sea, is used to demonstrate the methodology and compare with results using the limiting equilibrium approach. Results show that the shear band propagation approach successfully predicts observed failure geometries and suggests triggering conditions from a lower magnitude seismic event compared to that predicted using limiting equilibrium. The future application of shear band propagation theory to submarine landslide analysis is also discussed. Copyright © (2015) by the Offshore Technology Conference All rights reserved.
BP INTERNATIONAL Ltd and British Petroleum | Date: 2012-05-14
A device for relieving pressure in a subsea component comprises a housing including an inner cavity, an open end in fluid communication with the inner cavity, and a through bore extending from the inner cavity to an outer surface of the housing. In addition, the device comprises a connector coupled to the open end. The connector is configured to releasably engage a mating connector coupled to the subsea component. Further, the device comprises a burst disc assembly mounted to the housing within the through bore. The burst disc assembly is configured to rupture at a predetermined differential pressure between the inner cavity and the environment outside the housing.