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Pangbourne, United Kingdom

Crua C.,University of Brighton | Heikal M.R.,University of Brighton | Gold M.R.,BP Formulated Products Technology

Detailed measurements of near-nozzle spray formation are essential to better understand and predict the physical processes involved in diesel fuel atomisation. We used long-range microscopy to investigate the primary atomisation of diesel, biodiesel and kerosene fuels in the near-nozzle region, both at atmospheric and realistic engine conditions. High spatial and temporal resolutions allowed a detailed observation of the very emergence of fuel from the nozzle orifice. The fluid that first exited the nozzle resembled mushroom-like structures, as occasionally reported by other researchers for atmospheric conditions, with evidence of interfacial shearing instabilities and stagnation points. We captured the dynamics of this phenomenon using an ultra-fast framing camera with frame rates up to 5 million images per second, and identified these structures as residual fluid trapped in the orifice between injections. The residual fluid has an internal vortex ring motion which results in a slipstream effect that can propel a microscopic ligament of liquid fuel ahead. We showed that this mechanism is not limited to laboratory setups, and that it occurs for diesel fuels injected at engine-like conditions with production injectors. Our findings confirm that fuel can remain trapped in the injector holes after the end of injection. Although we could not measure the hydrocarbon content of the trapped vapourised fluid, we observed that its density was lower than that of the liquid fuel, but higher than that of the in-cylinder gas. We conclude that high-fidelity numerical models should not assume in their initial conditions that the sac and orifices of fuel injectors are filled with in-cylinder gas. Instead, our observations suggest that the nozzle holes should be considered partially filled with a dense fluid. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Da Costa C.,Loughborough University | Turner M.,Loughborough University | Reynolds J.C.,Loughborough University | Whitmarsh S.,BP Formulated Products Technology | And 2 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry

The analysis of corrosion inhibitors in the presence and absence of an oil matrix is reported using electrospray ionization (ESI) and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), hyphenated with miniaturized high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) and mass spectrometry (MS). The target analytes were successfully ionized in solution by ESI and directly from steel surfaces using DESI ambient ionization at levels ≥0.0004% w/w (4 ppm) in oil. Differences in the mass spectral profiles observed for the additive/oil mixture are attributed to differences between the ESI and DESI ionization processes. The use of FAIMS improved selectivity for ESI generated analyte ions through reduction in the chemical noise resulting from the oil matrix. DESI enabled the direct, rapid, native state interrogation of oil samples on steel surfaces without sample pretreatment, and the hyphenation of DESI with the miniaturized FAIMS enhanced the relative analyte responses of the surface-active corrosion inhibitors. © 2016 American Chemical Society. Source

Riello M.,Kings College London | Doni G.,Kings College London | Filip S.V.,BP Formulated Products Technology | Gold M.,BP Formulated Products Technology | De Vita A.,Kings College London
Journal of Physical Chemistry B

The conformational behavior of o-phenylene 8-mers and 10-mers solvated in a series of linear alkane solvents by means of classical molecular dynamics and first-principles calculations was studied. Irrespective of the solvent used, we find that at ambient pressure the molecule sits in the well-defined close-helical arrangement previously observed in light polar solvents. However, for pressures greater than 50 atm, and for tetradecane or larger solvent molecules, our simulations predict that o-phenylene undergoes a conformational transition to an uncoiled, extended geometry with a 35% longer head-to-tail distance and a much larger overlap between its lateral aromatic ring groups. The free energy barrier for the transition was studied as a function of pressure and temperature for both solute molecules in butane and hexadecane. Gas-phase density functional theory-based nudged elastic band calculations on 8-mer and 10-mer o-phenylene were used to estimate how the pressure-induced transition energy barrier changes with solute length. Our results indicate that a sufficiently large solvent molecule size is the key factor enabling a configuration transition upon pressure changes and that longer solute molecules associate with higher conformation transition energy barriers. This suggests the possibility of designing systems in which a solute molecule can be selectively activated by a controlled conformation transition achieved at a predefined set of pressure and temperature conditions. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

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