BP Exploration and Production Company Ltd

Sunbury-on-Thames, United Kingdom

BP Exploration and Production Company Ltd

Sunbury-on-Thames, United Kingdom

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Mammadov V.,BP International | Tacon K.,BP Exploration and Production Company Ltd | Davies B.,Retrofit | Ahmedov N.S.,BP Exploration Caspian Sea Ltd
Institution of Mechanical Engineers - 12th European Fluid Machinery Congress | Year: 2014

Among many important factors affecting centrifugal pump efficiency and reliability the ability of the pump internals to resist abrasive wear plays a crucial role. Generally in the oil and gas industry when pumps are selected the level of solids in the process fluid is clearly specified. However, in some applications there may be imprecise knowledge of the site operating conditions which can result in inefficient and unreliable pump operation. This paper concerns vertical sump type pumps in a closed drains service containing abrasive particles. It describes modifications to improve the overall reliability and service life by application of HVOF Tungsten Carbide hard face coatings and changes in the geometry of the pump internals. This work has resulted in an increase of the pump service life from 6 months to over 18 months. A general discussion on the coatings metallurgy and application processes is also presented. © The author(s) and/or their employer(s), 2014.


Hesketh J.,National Physical Laboratory United Kingdom | Hinds G.,National Physical Laboratory United Kingdom | Morana R.,BP Exploration and Production Company Ltd
Corrosion | Year: 2016

Hard wire brush pigging of oil and gas pipelines is often used to remove deposits and maintain flow efficiency but there is uncertainty as to whether the resulting mechanical damage could introduce a risk of localized corrosion or stress corrosion cracking. In this study, three different corrosion resistant alloys (CRAs) commonly used in oil and gas pipelines were subjected to surface abrasion at different levels of severity to simulate the damage experienced during pigging. Resistance to sulfide stress corrosion cracking under representative sour oilfield conditions was then evaluated using the four-point bend test method. No increase in susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking as a result of the simulated pigging process was observed under a range of conditions close to the pass/fail boundary for each material. Furthermore, under more severe conditions, surface abrasion inhibited local initiation and propagation of cracks on 25Cr superduplex stainless steel, with a ground surface finish, as a result of the compressive residual stresses created during the scratching process. The absence of pitting associated with pigging scratches was supported by electrochemical scratch repassivation measurements that demonstrated rapid repassivation of the 22Cr duplex stainless steel surface following the simulated pigging process. These results imply that the risk of stress corrosion cracking as a result of hard wire brush pigging of CRA pipelines is low.


Hinds G.,National Physical Laboratory United Kingdom | Wickstrom L.,National Physical Laboratory United Kingdom | Abda J.,National Physical Laboratory United Kingdom | Turnbull A.,National Physical Laboratory United Kingdom | And 2 more authors.
Corrosion Science | Year: 2014

Electrochemical characterisation techniques have the potential to reduce the number of expensive and time consuming stress corrosion cracking tests during selection of corrosion resistant alloys for oil and gas applications in which pitting is the precursor to cracking. The main challenge for the application of such techniques is the severity of the environmental conditions. Here we report the development of a novel approach to measurement of pitting susceptibility in very aggressive environments at elevated temperature and pressure based on the use of a high surface area rod specimen with the autoclave seal locally cooled to prevent undesirable crevice corrosion that would compromise the measurement. We also demonstrate that measurement of pitting susceptibility using a higher surface area specimen provides a more conservative result than a standard low surface area specimen, which is of practical value where cost constraints preclude statistical analysis of data from multiple repeat tests. © 2014.


Yang Y.,BP Exploration and Production Inc. | Bodington A.B.,BP Exploration and Production Inc. | Chang B.T.A.,PolyLab LLC
NACE - International Corrosion Conference Series | Year: 2016

Corrosion under insulation (CUI) is a serious external corrosion issue experienced both onshore and offshore. Modern offshore facilities in the Gulf of Mexico can be vast with many oil/gas processing equipment. Insulation is required on hot processing equipment for two main reasons; (1) personnel protection and (2) energy conservation. For personnel protection, the water borne acrylic insulative coating system is increasingly being used compared to the traditional insulation which is still used. When an insulative coating is applied, equipment shut-in is not typically required, preventing deferred production losses in most cases. Hence, primers and acrylic insulative coatings sprayed on hot steels (250°F and 350°F) are needed. For energy conservation, the main choice has traditionally been the use of a protective coating system applied on the steel surface wrapping with a thick traditional insulation material (e.g., mineral wool), and enclosed with a metal jacketing. Over time, moisture penetrates the insulation to reach equipment steel surfaces, particularly at damaged insulation areas and termination points. When this occurs, the equipment operated at 300°F and 440°F, needs to be shut down for safety reasons to allow repair work to be performed by applying the protective coating system under ambient conditions. A laboratory test protocol program was developed for the coatings to be used underneath each of the two types of insulation (i.e., insulative coating and traditional insulation). The test protocol for the insulative coatings includes: (1) thermal stability of hot primers, (2) accelerated corrosion of hot primers, (3) accelerated corrosion of insulative coating systems, and (4) corrosion resistance of the hot applied insulative coating system in a simulation test condition. The test protocol for CUI coatings includes: (1) thermal stability, (2) DI water & seawater immersion resistance, and (3) CUI simulation test. As a result of these newly developed test protocols, several failure modes have been identified: (1) blistering, (2) holidays (3) mud cracking, (4) cracking, (5) rusting, and (6) inter-coat delamination. Using the test protocols, candidate coating systems can be evaluated and best in class product(s) can be selected to mitigate CUI. © 2016 by NACE International.


Jones R.E.,Imperial College London | Simonetti F.,Imperial College London | Lowe M.J.S.,Imperial College London | Bradley I.P.,BP Exploration and Production Company
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2010

Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI) is a significant cause of pipeline failure in the oil and gas industry. This paper describes the initial developmental stages of a technique which uses the structure of an insulated pipeline as a coaxial waveguide to support the propagation of microwaves. These microwaves are used to inspect the insulation layer for the presence of water, which will indicate the regions of the pipe at risk from CUI. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.


Jones R.E.,Imperial College London | Simonetti F.,University of Cincinnati | Lowe M.J.S.,Imperial College London | Bradley I.P.,BP Exploration and Production Company
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation | Year: 2012

Corrosion under insulation is a significant cause of pipeline failure in the oil and gas industry. This paper describes the initial developmental stages of a technique which uses the structure of an insulated pipeline as a coaxial waveguide to support the propagation of microwaves. These microwaves are used to inspect the insulation layer for the presence of water, which will indicate the regions of the pipe at risk from corrosion. The practical requirements to achieve a low coherent noise level are identified, and the structures and dispersion characteristics of the modes which propagate in coaxial waveguides are examined to determine if these requirements can be met. An antenna array design proposed for pure mode excitation of the TEM mode and its effectiveness is demonstrated experimentally on a 12″ diameter coaxial waveguide. In particular, a signal-to-coherent-noise ratio as high as 39 dB is obtained with this arrangement. The sensitivity of the technique to the presence of water within the waveguide is investigated and it is found that water volumes with a cross-sectional area in the plane perpendicular to the waveguide axis of as little as 5% produce reflections that are readily detectable from the coherent noise floor. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.


Jones R.E.,Imperial College London | Simonetti F.,University of Cincinnati | Lowe M.J.S.,Imperial College London | Bradley I.P.,BP Exploration and Production Company
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation | Year: 2012

The detection of corrosion under insulation is an ongoing challenge in the oil and gas industry. An early warning of areas of pipe at risk of corrosion can be obtained by screening along the length of the pipeline to inspect the insulation layer for the presence of water, as water is a necessary precursor to corrosion. In a recent paper [Jones et al. in J. Nondestruct. Eval. 2011] we have shown that long-range detection of water volumes can be achieved with microwave signals, using the structure of the clad and insulated pipeline as a coaxial waveguide, with water volumes presenting an impedance contrast and producing reflections of the incident microwave signal. To achieve long-range inspection of complex pipe networks it is essential that the selected guided wave signal can transmit through structural features such as bends and supports whilst retaining a sufficient signal-Tonoise ratio. This paper therefore presents a study on the effects of bends on the propagation of the fundamental Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) mode. First, numerical simulations are used to study the amplitude of the TEM mode transmitted through a bend, as a function of bend radius and angle. It is found that for typical industrial bends with a bend angle of 90° and bend radii between three and five times the pipe diameter, the transmission coefficient varies between 96% and 93%, respectively. As the bend angle varies from 0 to 180° the transmission coefficient oscillates with maxima around 0, 90 and 180° and minima at around 45 and 130°. Moreover, the amplitude of the oscillation decreases as the bend radius increases. Then, experimental results on a 12 diameter waveguide with a length of 7 m are used to validate the simulated results and are found to be in excellent agreement. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.


Patent
2HOffshore Inc., BP Exploration and Production Inc. | Date: 2014-12-22

A system and method is provided for determining curvature for subsea riser system, including but not limited to drilling risers, steel catenary risers, lazy-wave catenary risers and riser jumpers, comprising the steps of: periodically measuring acceleration in a first lateral direction at said vertical position to obtain a first acceleration timetrace processing said first acceleration timetrace to obtain a first acceleration spectra; applying a transfer function to said first acceleration spectra to obtain a first curvature spectra; and processing said first curvature spectra to obtain a first curvature timetrace. Preferably the transfer function is determined by a method comprising the step of modelling the riser as a Tensioned Timoshenko Beam. The curvature may be used to determine stress and fatigue damage in a structure from motions measured at a single location or a combination of motions measured at a single location with or without tension measurement. The method can be used to determine curvature and hence stress and fatigue damage from any source of excitation, for example the excitation at the tension ring by the top tensioner system, and the vortex induced vibration locked in at any water depth.


Lofthus S.,Sintef | Almas I.K.,Sintef | Evans P.,BP Exploration and Production Inc. | Pelz O.,BP Exploration and Production Inc. | Brakstad O.G.,Sintef
Chemosphere | Year: 2016

Produced water (PW) discharged to the marine environment may contain both natural substances and industrial chemicals that are potentially persistent, bioaccumulating and toxic (PBT). Identification of substances as PBT is dependent upon accurate assessment of biodegradation rates, but these measurements can be impeded where substances exhibit inherently low solubility in water. Examples of substances of this kind include some alkylated phenols (APs). Biotransformation of three APs, suspected to be PBT compounds in PW, was investigated by adopting a new methodology in which they were immobilized to hydrophobic adsorbents submerged in natural seawater. These compounds were not ready biodegradable by conventional screening biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) methods at high concentrations (2 mg/L). However, potential biodegradability for two of the three APs were demonstrated by the immobilization method at low concentrations (appr. 100 μg/L), with biotransformation half-lives <50 days. Thus, standard screening tests should be supplemented by biodegradation methods suited for testing of poorly soluble substances before the persistence of potential PBT substances are defined. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Evans G.,BP Exploration and Production Company Ltd | Baker J.,Enterprise Group | Swindell R.,Enterprise Group
41st International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2012, INTER-NOISE 2012 | Year: 2012

This paper illustrates how the Energy Institute Guidelines have been used in an operating environment in both a reactive manner, following a failure, and a proactive manner during project execution. In both cases the guidelines gave insight into the design issues and were used to ensure the mechanical integrity of the process plant piping systems.

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