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Bosch C.,Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH | Smith V.,BP Exploration and Production Company Ltd | Cassagne T.,Total S.A. | Kittel J.,French Institute of Petroleum
NACE - International Corrosion Conference Series | Year: 2014

The European Pipeline Research Group (EPRG) has initiated a project to compare Full Scale Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) test results (1-sided exposure) with laboratory HIC test results (6-sided exposure) of the same materials, with a view of generating acceptance criteria for sweet service steels that could be applied to milder sour conditions.For comparison with laboratory HIC tests Full Scale HIC tests have been performed by testing full circumferential sections of two recently manufactured pipes intended for sweet service; a X65 SAWL pipe with 20″ (508 mm) OD and 25.4 mm wall thickness and a X70 HFI pipe with 24″ (609.6 mm) OD and 12.7 mm wall thickness. The experiments covered the range of H2S partial pressures from 0.1 bar to 1 bar and pH values of 3.5 and 4.5.For both pipe materials the comparison of Full Scale and laboratory HIC tests revealed severe HIC cracking under NACE standard test conditions. Full Scale testing of both materials at 0.1 bar H2S partial pressure at pH 3.5 up to 10 months revealed little to no cracking, whereas the related laboratory tests performed for 14 days showed some propensity to HIC. These findings are backed up by further comparative Full Scale and laboratory HIC tests on the two pipe materials. The results are discussed with regard to the ”no cracking” HIC criterion given in NACE MR0175/ISO 15156-2 for application specific conditions. ©2014 by NACE International.

Mammadov V.,BP International | Tacon K.,BP Exploration and Production Company Ltd | Davies B.,Retrofit | Ahmedov N.S.,BP Exploration Caspian Sea Ltd
Institution of Mechanical Engineers - 12th European Fluid Machinery Congress | Year: 2014

Among many important factors affecting centrifugal pump efficiency and reliability the ability of the pump internals to resist abrasive wear plays a crucial role. Generally in the oil and gas industry when pumps are selected the level of solids in the process fluid is clearly specified. However, in some applications there may be imprecise knowledge of the site operating conditions which can result in inefficient and unreliable pump operation. This paper concerns vertical sump type pumps in a closed drains service containing abrasive particles. It describes modifications to improve the overall reliability and service life by application of HVOF Tungsten Carbide hard face coatings and changes in the geometry of the pump internals. This work has resulted in an increase of the pump service life from 6 months to over 18 months. A general discussion on the coatings metallurgy and application processes is also presented. © The author(s) and/or their employer(s), 2014.

Evans G.,BP Exploration and Production Company Ltd | Baker J.,Enterprise Group | Swindell R.,Enterprise Group
41st International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2012, INTER-NOISE 2012 | Year: 2012

This paper illustrates how the Energy Institute Guidelines have been used in an operating environment in both a reactive manner, following a failure, and a proactive manner during project execution. In both cases the guidelines gave insight into the design issues and were used to ensure the mechanical integrity of the process plant piping systems.

Jones R.E.,Imperial College London | Simonetti F.,University of Cincinnati | Lowe M.J.S.,Imperial College London | Bradley I.P.,BP Exploration and Production Company Ltd
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation | Year: 2012

Corrosion under insulation is a significant cause of pipeline failure in the oil and gas industry. This paper describes the initial developmental stages of a technique which uses the structure of an insulated pipeline as a coaxial waveguide to support the propagation of microwaves. These microwaves are used to inspect the insulation layer for the presence of water, which will indicate the regions of the pipe at risk from corrosion. The practical requirements to achieve a low coherent noise level are identified, and the structures and dispersion characteristics of the modes which propagate in coaxial waveguides are examined to determine if these requirements can be met. An antenna array design proposed for pure mode excitation of the TEM mode and its effectiveness is demonstrated experimentally on a 12″ diameter coaxial waveguide. In particular, a signal-to-coherent-noise ratio as high as 39 dB is obtained with this arrangement. The sensitivity of the technique to the presence of water within the waveguide is investigated and it is found that water volumes with a cross-sectional area in the plane perpendicular to the waveguide axis of as little as 5% produce reflections that are readily detectable from the coherent noise floor. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

Jones R.E.,Imperial College London | Simonetti F.,University of Cincinnati | Lowe M.J.S.,Imperial College London | Bradley I.P.,BP Exploration and Production Company Ltd
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation | Year: 2012

The detection of corrosion under insulation is an ongoing challenge in the oil and gas industry. An early warning of areas of pipe at risk of corrosion can be obtained by screening along the length of the pipeline to inspect the insulation layer for the presence of water, as water is a necessary precursor to corrosion. In a recent paper [Jones et al. in J. Nondestruct. Eval. 2011] we have shown that long-range detection of water volumes can be achieved with microwave signals, using the structure of the clad and insulated pipeline as a coaxial waveguide, with water volumes presenting an impedance contrast and producing reflections of the incident microwave signal. To achieve long-range inspection of complex pipe networks it is essential that the selected guided wave signal can transmit through structural features such as bends and supports whilst retaining a sufficient signal-Tonoise ratio. This paper therefore presents a study on the effects of bends on the propagation of the fundamental Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) mode. First, numerical simulations are used to study the amplitude of the TEM mode transmitted through a bend, as a function of bend radius and angle. It is found that for typical industrial bends with a bend angle of 90° and bend radii between three and five times the pipe diameter, the transmission coefficient varies between 96% and 93%, respectively. As the bend angle varies from 0 to 180° the transmission coefficient oscillates with maxima around 0, 90 and 180° and minima at around 45 and 130°. Moreover, the amplitude of the oscillation decreases as the bend radius increases. Then, experimental results on a 12 diameter waveguide with a length of 7 m are used to validate the simulated results and are found to be in excellent agreement. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

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