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Sezgin A.,Amasya University | Atagun A.O.,Bozok University
Computers and Mathematics with Applications | Year: 2011

Soft set theory, proposed by Molodtsov, has been regarded as an effective mathematical tool to deal with uncertainties. In this paper, first we prove that certain De Morgan's law hold in soft set theory with respect to different operations on soft sets. Then, we discuss the basic properties of operations on soft sets such as intersection, extended intersection, restricted union and restricted difference. Moreover, we illustrate their interconnections between each other. Also we define the notion of restricted symmetric difference of soft sets and investigate its properties. The main purpose of this paper is to extend the theoretical aspect of operations on soft sets. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Atagun A.O.,Bozok University | Sezgin A.,Amasya University
Computers and Mathematics with Applications | Year: 2011

Soft set theory, proposed by Molodtsov, has been regarded as an effective mathematical tool to deal with uncertainties. In this paper, we introduce and study soft subrings and soft ideals of a ring by using Molodtsov's definition of the soft sets. Moreover, we introduce soft subfields of a field and soft submodule of a left R-module. Some related properties about soft substructures of rings, fields and modules are investigated and illustrated by many examples. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kapusuz Gencer Z.,Bozok University
European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to determine the possible role of nasal septal deviation on volume of maxillary sinuses and its relationship with development of maxillary sinusitis. Between May 2010 and September 2012, paranasal sinus computed tomography (CT) findings of 825 patients (470 males, 355 females), who admitted to Ear Nose and Throat Department of Bozok University Medical Faculty were retrospectively analyzed. By excluding the other co-existent sino nasal pathologies, 109 consecutive patients (47 males, 62 females mean age 36 ± 13.4 years; range 18-71 years) with isolated nasal septal deviations were recruited for the study. The convex side of the septal curvature was accepted as the direction of deviation. The findings were grouped according to the radiologically measured angle of nasal septal deviations. The deviation angle of the nasal septum was described as; mild (<9°), moderate (the angle between 9° and 15°), or severe (15° and up). The volume of each maxillary sinus (ipsi- and contralateral to the deviation side) was also calculated using the computer program. Sinusitis was defined as any evident thickening of the maxillary sinus mucosa. There were 62 females and 47 males with a mean age of 36 ± 13.4. Nasal septal deviation angles were found to range between 5° and 27.2° (mean 13° ± 3.4°). The right sided deviations included 19 mild (<9°, Group I), 16 moderate (9°-15°, Group II), and 16 severe (15° and up, Group III) cases. The left sided deviations included 19 mild (<9°, Group I), 19 moderate (9°-15°, Group II), and 20 severe (15° and up, Group III) subjects. Maxillary sinus volumes were compared between right and left sided deviation groups. We could not demonstrate a statistically significant difference between the right maxillary sinus volumes of Groups I and II in left sided deviation cases (p = 0.77). In the same side, comparison of Groups I-III and Groups II-III, the maxillary sinus volume differences were found to be significantly meaningful (p = 0.001 and p = 0.013, respectively). Identical results were yielded in the right sided septal deviation group related to the maxillary sinus volumes of Groups I and II and Groups I-III and Groups II-III compartments (p = 0.99, p = 0.004 and p = 0.003, respectively). In both right and left deviation groups, ipsi and contralateral maxillary sinus volume comparements produced statistically significant results (p = 0.002 and p = 0.04, respectively). The presence of maxillary sinusitis findings were significantly increased in both group (p = 0.00). Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Our findings suggest that maxillary sinus volumes tend to be higher at the contralateral side of the severe septum deviations. In addition, the chance of finding maxillary sinusitis findings on ipsilateral to the severe septum deviation was significantly increased.

Oksuz N.,Bozok University
Journal of Rare Earths | Year: 2011

The Eymir (Yozgat-Sorgun, Turkey) manganese deposit occurs within radiolarite cherts of the lower Cretaceous ophiolite complex. The mineralization was observed banded and lenticular forms. The geochemical characteristics of the Eymir deposit was studied by means of major oxide, trace and rare earth element (REE) contents and the origin of mineralization was discussed. The correlation coefficients indicated the presence of strong positive relations between major oxides and various trace elements (Al2O 3-Fe2O3: r=0.75; Al2O 3-CaO: r=0.79; Al2O3-TiO2: r=0.80; Al2O3-Zr: r=0.66; TiO2-Fe2O 3: r=0.98; TiO2-CaO: r=0.82; TiO2-Zr: r=0.85 and Fe2O3-Zr: r=0.89) and the contribution of mafic terrigenous material to the deposition. In chondrite normalized REE graphics samples were characterized by highly negative and positive Ce anomalies. Europium showed negative anomaly in all samples. The negative Ce anomaly was typical to submarine hydrothermal deposits and positive Ce anomaly was indicative of hydrogenous deposits. The negative Eu anomaly showed contamination from the continental crust and/or sediment contribution via dehydration. Ce values in the Eymir mineralization were computed from the equation of Ce anom=lg [3xCeN/(2xLaN+NdN)] and anomalies were found as Ceanom < -0.1 in 8 samples and Ce anom > -0.1 in 12 samples. These values are indicative of both oxic and anoxic sedimentation conditions. The available data indicated that the Eymir manganese deposit is a hydrothermal-hydrogenous type volcanosedimentary mineralization. © 2011 The Chinese Society of Rare Earths.

The aim of this study is to show that protective effects of the main catechin (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) against capsaicin (CAP) induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in human blood in vitro. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were studied in erythrocytes and leucocytes with increased concentrations of CAP. DNA damage in leucocytes was measured by the comet assay. Human blood cells have been administered with doses between 0 and 200 μM of CAP and/or EGCG (20 μM) for an hour at 37 °C. Treatment with CAP alone has increased the levels of MDA and decreased antioxidant enzymes in human blood cells. A significant increase in tail DNA%, mean tail length and tail moment indicating DNA damage has been observed at the highest dose of CAP treatment when compared to controls. Treatment of cells with CAP plus EGCG prevented CAP-induced changes in antioxidant enzyme activities and MDA level and mean tail lenght indicating DNA damage. A significant increase in mean tail lenght was observed at high doses of CAP. These data suggest that EGCG can prevent toxicity to human erythrocytes and leucocytes caused by CAP, only at low doses. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Pandir Y.,Bozok University
Applied Mathematics and Information Sciences | Year: 2014

A new version of the Kudryashov's method for solving non-integrable problems in mathematical physics is presented in this paper. New exact solutions of the heat conduction equation and K(m,n) equation with generalized evolution are obtained by using this method. The solutions gained from the proposed method have been verified with obtained by the (G'/G)-expansion method. © 2014 NSP Natural Sciences Publishing Cor.

In this study, crosslinked poly(4-vinylpyridine/crotonic acid) [poly(4-VPy/CrA)] and its N-oxide derivative were synthesized to compare the adsorption of cationic methylene blue (MB) dye on these materials. The adsorptive removal of MB from aqueous solution onto adsorbents was studied by using column adsorption method. Experimental results showed that MB was removed more effective by poly(4-VPy/CrA)-N-oxide than poly(4-VPy/CrA) resins. The percentage removal of MB increased with pH, and it was observed that basic pH was favorable for the adsorption of MB. The adsorption capacity for poly(4-VPy/CrA)-N-oxide resin was found to 19.96 mg/g. It was found that the adsorption isotherm of the MB-fitted Langmuir-type isotherm. For the adsorption of MB, the pseudo-second-order chemical reaction kinetics provides the best correlation with the experimental data. Ten adsorption-desorption cycles demonstrated that the resins were suitable for repeated use without considerable change in adsorption capacity. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Pandir Y.,Bozok University
Pramana - Journal of Physics | Year: 2014

In this paper, new exact solutions, including soliton, rational and elliptic integral function solutions, for the generalized Zakharov-Kuznetsov modified equal-width equation are obtained using a new approach called the extended trial equation method. In this discussion, a new version of the trial equation method for the generalized nonlinear partial differential equations is offered. © Indian Academy of Sciences.

This paper presents a study into the enhancement of the productivity attained by a proper modification in the system designs. The basic heat and mass transfer expressions for designing solar stills were derived in terms of design and climatic parameters. These solar stills were based on using a direct solar energy collection unit integrated with flash evaporation, distillation equipment and air transportation. The main objective of this study is to estimate the water production and still efficiency for different types of active solar stills in certain locations. In this investigation, proper modifications in the system designs were also made and compared on daily yields and daily still efficiencies. It was observed that a maximum daily yield of 12.37. l was obtained from the circular box solar still unit in Kayseri, Turkey. This study shows that the design of the circular box active solar still also provides the highest overall daily still efficiency, which is about 68.1%, in that of the active solar stills. It is clear that there is a significant effect on daily yield due to the proper modifications in the system designs. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Temizer U.,Bozok University
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials | Year: 2014

In this study, the dynamic critical behavior of the mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising system on a bilayer square lattice is studied by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics for both ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (FM/FM) and antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (AFM/FM) interactions in the presence of a time-varying external magnetic field. The dynamic equations describing the time-dependencies of the average magnetizations are derived from the Master equation. The phases in the system are obtained by solving these dynamic equations. The temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations is investigated in order to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic phase transitions and to obtain the dynamic phase transition temperatures. The dynamic phase diagrams are constructed in seven different planes for both FM/FM and AFM/FM interactions and the effects of the related interaction parameters on the dynamic phase diagrams are examined. It is found that the dynamic phase diagrams display many dynamic critical points, such as tricritical point, triple point (TP), quadruple point (QP), double critical end point (B), multicritical point (A) and tetracritical point (M). Moreover, the reentrant behavior is observed for AFM/FM interaction in the system. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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