Lubel J.S.,Box Hill Hospital |
Angus P.W.,University of Melbourne
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (Australia) | Year: 2010
Nearly one third of the world's population have been infected with hepatitis B and the virus is endemic in many Asian countries. With increasing life expectancy and the expected global increase in cancer, chemotherapy induced reactivation of hepatitis B is likely to become an increasing problem. Patients with significant levels of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in serum prior to chemotherapy and patients receiving intensive chemotherapy for hematological malignancies appear particularly at risk. Most patients who suffer reactivation of hepatitis B are positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prior to chemotherapy and are therefore easily identifiable by routine screening. In addition, the very large population of patients who have been exposed to the virus and have apparently cleared the virus as assessed by serological testing (HBsAg negative/hepatitis B core antibody [HBcAb] positive) may also be at risk of reactivation. These patients should be monitored and in some cases receive prophylaxis during chemotherapy. Published experience with antiviral prophylaxis has largely been limited to the nucleoside analogue, lamivudine. The commencement of antiviral prophylaxis prior to chemotherapy and its continuation until restitution of normal host immunity is the cornerstone to effective prevention of hepatitis B reactivation. This review summarizes the important issues related to HBV reactivation and suggests an algorithm for managing these patients in the clinical setting. © 2010 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Talia K.L.,Box Hill Hospital
International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists | Year: 2012
We report 2 cases of primary vaginal mucinous adenocarcinoma arising in adenosis in nondiethylstilbestrol-exposed women, 1 with uterus didelphys. Both tumors exhibited morphologic and immunohistochemical features (MUC6 and/or HIK 1083 positivity) identical to the recently described cervical gastric-type adenocarcinoma, a subtype of mucinous adenocarcinoma that is non-human papillomavirus related and possibly related to adenoma malignum. Both neoplasms were intensely p53 positive, suggesting that TP53 mutation may be implicated in their development. We believe that the vaginal tumors arose from adenosis through atypical adenosis, as benign and atypical glands were present at the periphery of the neoplasms. In reporting these cases, we discuss atypical adenosis and other types of non-diethylstilbestrol-associated vaginal adenocarcinomas. At least 9 other examples of primary vaginal, or more uncommonly cervical, adenocarcinomas arising in non-diethylstilbestrol-exposed women with congenital genitourinary malformations have been reported, suggesting a probable causal association between congenital malformation, vaginal adenosis, and vaginal adenocarcinoma.
Bray J.E.,Deakin University |
Coughlan K.,Box Hill Hospital |
Barger B.,Ambulance Victoria |
Bladin C.,Monash University
Stroke | Year: 2010
Background and purpose: Recent evidence suggests the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale is ineffectively used and lacks sensitivity and specificity. Melbourne (Australia) paramedics have been using the Melbourne Ambulance Stroke Screen (MASS) since 2005. The aim of this study was to review the real-world use of MASS 3 years after citywide implementation. Methods: Two groups of consecutively admitted patients to an Australian hospital between January and May 2008 were used: (1) patients for whom paramedics performed MASS; and (2) patients with a discharge diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack. Use of MASS was examined for all transports and for patients diagnosed with stroke or transient ischemic attack. The sensitivity and specificity of paramedic diagnosis, MASS, and Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale were calculated. Paramedic diagnosis of stroke among patients with stroke was statistically compared with those obtained immediately post-MASS implementation in 2002. Results: For the study period, MASS was performed for 850 (16%) of 5286 emergency transports, including 199 of 207 (96%) patients with confirmed stroke and transient ischemic attack. In patients in whom MASS was performed (n=850), the sensitivity of paramedic diagnosis of stroke (93%, 95% CI: 88% to 96%) was higher than the MASS (83%, 95% CI: 77% to 88%, P=0.003) and equivalent to Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale (88%, 95% CI: 83% to 92%, P=0.120), whereas the specificity of the paramedic diagnosis of stroke (87%, 95% CI: 84% to 89%) was equivalent to MASS (86%, 95% CI: 83% to 88%, P=0.687) and higher than Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale (79%, 95% CI: 75% to 82%, P<0.001). The initial improvement in stroke paramedic diagnosis seen in 2002 (94%, 95% CI: 86% to 98%) was sustained in 2008 (89%, 95% CI: 84% to 94%, P=0.19). Conclusion: In our experience, paramedics have successfully incorporated MASS into the assessment of neurologically compromised patients. The initial improvement to the paramedics' diagnosis of stroke with MASS was sustained 3 years after citywide implementation. Copyright © 2010 American Heart Association. All rights reserved.
Ernest D.,Box Hill Hospital
Critical care and resuscitation : journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2010
We report an unusual and emerging cause of profound hypokalaemia associated with a severe myopathy, attributable to misuse of Nurofen Plus, a readily available over-the-counter medication containing ibuprofen and codeine, and excessive ingestion of the caffeine-containing energy drink, Red Bull. The mechanism of the hypokalaemia may be ascribed to ibuprofen-mediated type 2 renal tubular acidosis, and caffeine-mediated antagonism of adenosine receptors or intercompartmental shift of potassium into the intracellular space. Practitioners should be aware that patients with codeine addiction who misuse Nurofen Plus may present with severe hypokalaemia complicated by myopathy.
Ferguson C.D.,Vascular Biology Unit |
Clancy P.,Vascular Biology Unit |
Bourke B.,Gosford Hospital |
Walker P.J.,University of Queensland |
And 4 more authors.
American Heart Journal | Year: 2010
Background: Statins have been suggested to reduce expansion of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) independent of lipid-lowering effects. Methods: We assessed the association of statin treatment and serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations with small AAA expansion. Six hundred fifty-two patients undergoing surveillance of small AAAs were entered into the study from 5 vascular centers. In a subset, fasting lipids (n = 451) and other biomarkers (n = 216) were measured. The AAA diameter was followed by ultrasound surveillance for a median of 5 years. Results: Three hundred forty-nine (54%) of the patients were prescribed statins. Adjusting for other risk factors, statin prescription was not associated with AAA growth (odds ratio [OR] 1.23, 95% CI 0.86-1.76). Above-median AAA growth was positively associated with initial diameter (OR 1.78 per 4.35-mm-larger initial aortic diameter, 95% CI 1.49-2.14) and negatively associated with diabetes (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.22-0.62). Above-median serum LDL concentration was not associated with AAA growth. Patients receiving statins had lower serum C-reactive protein concentrations but similar matrix metalloproteinase-9 and interleukin-6 concentrations to those not prescribed these medications. Conclusions: We found no association between statin prescription or LDL concentration with AAA expansion. The results do not support the findings of smaller studies and suggest that statins may have no benefit in reducing AAA progression. © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.