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Archie K.M.,Boulder Environmental Sciences and Technology
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2014

Geographic factors make mountain communities around the world vulnerable to the direct effects of climate change, and reliance on recreation and tourism can increase vulnerability to the secondary economic impacts.The goal of this research was to investigate the current state of community adaptation planning in the Southern Rocky Mountain region of North America. Using original survey data this paper discusses the challenges that community and county officials currently face, the perceived effects of future climate change in this region, and the perceived barriers to adaptation planning and hurdles to adaptation implementation. Results show lack of resources, information and political will are the most commonly reported barriers to adaptation. This paper also examines the connectivity between mountain communities and the surrounding federal public lands. Fifty one percent of respondents report that decisions made on nearby public lands frequently or always affect planning and decision making in their community. Collaborative efforts between these entities are proposed as a way to reduce the resource burden of adaptation planning for both entities. Finally, this paper discusses how attitudes and beliefs about climate change affect responses to questions about adaptation planning. On average, respondents who report higher levels of concern about and belief in climate change and those who are better informed about climate change report higher levels of adaptation planning. Elected officials in this sample have, on average, lower concern about and belief in climate change than bureaucratic respondents. Thus changes in elected official composition or improved leadership on climate change planning by incumbent officials could facilitate progress on adaptation © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Morss R.E.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Wilhelmi O.V.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Meehl G.A.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Dilling L.,Boulder Environmental Sciences and Technology
Annual Review of Environment and Resources | Year: 2011

Despite hazard mitigation efforts and scientific and technological advances, extreme weather events continue to cause substantial losses. The impacts of extreme weather result from complex interactions among physical and human systems across spatial and temporal scales. This article synthesizes current interdisciplinary knowledge about extreme weather, including temperature extremes (heat and cold waves), precipitation extremes (including floods and droughts), and storms and severe weather (including tropical cyclones). We discuss hydrometeorological aspects of extreme weather; projections of changes in extremes with anthropogenic climate change; and how social vulnerability, coping, and adaptation shape the societal impacts of extreme weather. We find four critical gaps where work is needed to improve outcomes of extreme weather: (a) reducing vulnerability; (b) enhancing adaptive capacity, including decision-making flexibility; (c) improving the usability of scientific information in decision making, and (d) understanding and addressing local causes of harm through participatory, community-based efforts formulated within the larger policy context. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Agency: National Science Foundation | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2016

The broader impact/commercial potential of this project is in improving and simplifying weather observations from various platforms, such as an unmanned aircraft, small satellites in orbit, a buoy in the middle of the ocean or from the ground, even in a remote location. The targeted customer for the radiometer receiver is anyone who desires a more detailed, localized, short term forecast. Such customers include meteorological organizations, both private and governmental, operators of renewable energy plants ? onshore and offshore wind farms or solar power plants, future unmanned or robotic aircrafts that observe the atmosphere, military, and others. Sensors built with these receivers can also contribute to remote detection of in-flight icing danger in general aviation. Our sensor will simplify observations from small aircraft, piloted or unmanned, thus allowing new observations of clouds, their water or ice content, and the local thermodynamic status of the atmosphere. Such observations will thus improve scientific understanding of clouds and their representation in climate and Earth system models. More broadly, this project represents a new technological concept of sub terahertz receiver design and assembly. Users of sub terahertz receivers include airport security (body scanners), short range high bit rate communications, industrial testing of paper, polymer, food, pharmaceutical and agriculture, and medical imaging. This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project proposes the development of a novel, highly integrated, low power consuming, radiometer receiver operating around 183.31 GHz, in the vicinity of a water vapor absorption line. The receiver architecture was chosen to improve radiometer sensitivity, calibration accuracy, and reliability, while keeping its weight, size, and power consumption low. The goal of the effort is to develop a sensor that would enable wide spread weather observations. The receiver would be relatively easy to assemble, repair and its production cost would be low, especially for large quantities. The Phase I project is focused on a feasibility study of the receiver design. The major receiver components will be designed and their performance modelled. The anticipated result is a preliminary design of the whole receiver and characterization of its operational parameters.

Dilling L.,Boulder Environmental Sciences and Technology | Hauser R.,Boulder Environmental Sciences and Technology | Hauser R.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research
Climatic Change | Year: 2013

Research on geoengineering - deliberate management of the Earth's climate system - is being increasingly discussed within the science and policy communities. While justified as necessary in order to expand the range of options available to policy makers in the future, geoengineering research has already engendered public controversy. Proposed projects have been protested or cancelled, and calls for a governance framework abound. In this paper, we consider the reasons why geoengineering research might be subject to additional governance and suggest mechanisms that might be usefully applied in developing such a framework. We consider criteria for governance as raised by a review of the growing literature on geoengineering and other controversial scientific topics. We suggest three families of concern that any governance research framework must respond to: the direct physical risks of the research; the transparency and responsibility in decision making for the research; and the larger societal meanings of the research. We review what mechanisms might be available to respond to these three families of concern, and consider how these might apply to geoengineering research. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Dilling L.,Boulder Environmental Sciences and Technology | Failey E.,Boulder Environmental Sciences and Technology
Global Environmental Change | Year: 2013

Human land use contributes significantly to the growth of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Changes in land management practices have been proposed as a critical and cost-effective mechanism for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and promoting the storage of additional carbon in vegetation and soils. However many discussions of the potential for land use to mitigate climate change only take into account biophysical factors such as vegetation and land cover and neglect how the agency of land owners themselves affects whether additional carbon storage can be achieved. Unlike many potential REDD opportunities in developing countries, land management in the U.S. to enhance carbon sequestration would occur against a backdrop of clearly defined, legally enforceable land ownership. In addition, more than a third of the land surface in the U.S. is managed by federal agencies who operate under legal guidelines for multiple use and is subject to demands from multiple constituencies. We set out to investigate how the goal of enhancing carbon sequestration through land use is perceived or implemented in one region of the U.S. , and how this goal might intersect the existing drivers and incentives for public and private land use decision making. We conducted a case study through interviews of the major categories of landowners in the state of Colorado, which represents a mixture of public and privately held lands. By analyzing trends in interview responses across categories, we found that managing for carbon is currently a fairly low priority and we identify several barriers to more widespread consideration of carbon as a management priority including competing objectives, limited resources, lack of information, negative perceptions of offsetting and lack of a sufficient policy signal. We suggest four avenues for enhancing the potential for carbon to be managed through land use including clarifying mandates for public lands, providing compelling incentives for private landowners, improving understanding of the co-benefits and tradeoffs of managing for carbon, and creating more usable science to support decision making. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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