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Heinsheimer T.,and Hills Inc. | Betts B.,Planetary Society | Cash W.,Boulder CO | Hoyt R.,Tethers Unlimited, Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2012

Advances in nano-technology, bio-engineering, robotics and information processing are enabling nano-spacecraft (1-10 kg) and perhaps even pico-spacecraft (< 1kg) to be used in evermore sophisticated and ever lower cost missions. Practical-sized LightSails™ can be used to propel nano-spacecraft to high solar system escape speeds to reach unexplored distances in interstellar space with reasonable flight times. Such missions could be the precursors for robotic and even virtual human spaceflight to the stars - missions previously thought to be centuries in the future or even science fiction fantasies may now be only 75-100 years from possibility. This paper will report on a proposed study to examine the feasibility of nano-spacecraft to make meaningful interstellar precursor missions which both advance the requisite technologies of interstellar flight and return valuable science data at extra-solar system destinations. Example destinations include the Kuiper Belt, the heliosheath, the heliopause, the solar gravity lens focus and the Oort Cloud. The solar gravity lens focus is of particular interest since observations of potentially habitable exo-planets may be greatly enhanced there. We can imagine a number of low- cost nano-spacecraft sent to foci that align with a number of candidate planets eventually helping to choose the destination of an interstellar mission. The feasibility of nano-spacecraft will be principally dependent upon the ability to provide sufficient power for science and communications, to communicate over large distances and the performance of a miniaturized payload. In addition the materials technology to enable the LightSail to very close to the Sun in order to achieve the high escape velocity is crucial. The paper will examine potential mission requirements and technological solutions to enable these interstellar precursors. Among the specific concepts that will be discussed are: (1) Imaging extra-solar planets at the solar gravity lens focus; (2) A deep-space communications Multi-spectral Occultation Relay System Experiment (MORSE) to encode mission data on occulted starlight; (3) Generating of a few watts of power in a nano-spacecraft; (4) The practical maximum area for a deployable LightSail on a nano-spacecraft with high temperature and strong radiation limits; (5) The practical use of the LightSail beyond 5 AU. From this study will emerge novel technological solutions to advance flight beyond our solar system and eventually to the stars and a specific mission concept, perhaps to the solar gravity lens focus, to extend human scientific understanding beyond our own solar system. Copyright © (2012) by the International Astronautical Federation.

Zubko E.,University of Kharkiv | Videen G.,Boulder CO | Videen G.,University of Cantabria | Videen G.,U.S. Army | And 12 more authors.
Planetary and Space Science | Year: 2015

We analyze the first color and polarization images of Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) taken during two measurement campaigns of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) on UTC 2013 April 10 and May 8, when the phase angles of Comet ISON were α≈13.7° and 12.2°, respectively. We model the particles in the coma using highly irregular agglomerated debris particles. Even though the observations were made over a small range of phase angle, the data still place significant constraints on the material properties of the cometary coma. The different photo-polarimetric responses are indicative of spatial chemical heterogeneity of coma in Comet ISON. For instance, at small projected distances to the nucleus (<500. km), our modeling suggests the cometary particles are composed predominantly of small, highly absorbing particles, such as amorphous carbon and/or organics material heavily irradiated with UV radiation; whereas, at longer projected distances (>1000. km), the refractive index of the particles is consistent with organic matter slightly processed with UV radiation, tholins, Mg-Fe silicates, and/or Mg-rich silicates contaminated with ~10% (by volume) amorphous carbon. The modeling suggests low relative abundances of particles with low material absorption in the visible, i.e., Im(m)≤0.02. Such particles were detected unambiguously in other comets in the vicinity of nucleus through very strong negative polarization near backscattering (P≈-6%) and very low positive polarization (P≈3-5%) at side scattering. These materials were previously attributed to Mg-rich silicates forming a refractory surface layer on the surface of cometary nuclei (Zubko et al., 2012). The absence of such particles in Comet ISON could imply an absence of such a layer on its nucleus. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Rabern L.,Boulder CO
Electronic Journal of Combinatorics | Year: 2011

We prove that if G is the line graph of a multigraph, then the chromatic number χ(G) of G is at most max {ω(G), 7Δ(G)+10/8} where ω(G) and Δ(G) are the clique number and the maximum degree of G, respectively. Thus Brooks' Theorem holds for line graphs of multigraphs in much stronger form. Using similar methods we then prove that if G is the line graph of a multigraph with χ(G) ≥ Δ(G) ≥ 9, then G contains a clique on Δ(G) vertices. Thus the Borodin-Kostochka Conjecture holds for line graphs of multigraphs.

Tandy Jr. W.D.,US Government | Tandy Jr. W.D.,Boulder CO | Campbell L.,US Government | Campbell L.,Boulder CO | And 8 more authors.
AIAA Spacecraft Structures Conference | Year: 2014

The MOIRE optical space system, being designed by Ball Aerospace and its partners for DARPA, is a gossamer structure featuring a 10 meter diameter membrane optical element at a distance 50 meters away from the spacecraft bus. The proposed design has traceability to a system with a 20 meter diameter primary optic. As the critical technology of the program, the membrane has received significant analysis and testing time. This paper discusses several challenges and some of the unique solutions and capabilities that Ball Aerospace and its partners are providing.

Zimmerman R.E.,Harvard University | Park M.-A.,Harvard University | Andrews R.D.,Boulder CO | Moore S.C.,Harvard University
IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record | Year: 2010

When evaluating small-animal imagers, small pointlike sources (1mm diam.) are useful for testing system performance. Slightly larger sources (1-3 mm) can also be used to mimic tumors. Ideal sources should have high uptake of TcO4-, and should not be damaged during preparation or handling. Various crystalline minerals are able to adsorb a variety of chemical species, and may satisfy these criteria. We evaluated the utility of a number of such materials for SPECT and PET imaging. Initial tests of 12 different types of crystalline minerals convinced us that the following five materials were promising with regard to size, uptake, and physical robustness: (1)PSA diatomaceous earth (2))Isolite calcined diatomaceous earth (3)Profile calcined clay (4)Bear River zeolite (5)ZeoPro lite. Three samples of each material were soaked in a solution of 1,850 MBq/ml TcO4- for 10 min, while three other pieces of each type were soaked for 60 min. Samples were air-dried, scanned for 30 min in the Harvard microSPECT system, and later scanned on a GE Locus microCT to determine the volume and density variation of each piece. Each sample's specific activity was measured by drawing regions on the microSPECT images, which had been reconstructed for 11 iterations of OSEM. After 10 min. of soaking, the uptake varied from a low of 265/-32 MBq/cc with material 4, up to a high of 850/81 MBq/cc with material 3. After 60 min of soaking there was little change in specific activity. Other properties of the 5 zeolites varied considerably. Material 1 is fragile, and easily fragments into smaller pieces. Material 3 was robust to handling, and showed the highest and most uniform uptake, as well as uniform density. Material 2 exhibited variable density, while the the zeolite samples (4 and 5) were more uniform in density, with moderate uptake. Uptake comparison with cation and anion exchange beads was also performed. Finally, we conducted preliminary evaluations of the adsorption of 18F-FDG on selected materials, and found similar relative uptake for different materials, except that the average adsorption efficiency of FDG was about an order-of-magnitude less than that of TcO4-, presumably because of differences in molecular size and charge effects. © 2010 IEEE.

Li X.,University of Alberta | Anand M.,University of Alberta | Haimes J.D.,Inc. Boulder | Manoj N.,Inc. Boulder | And 6 more authors.
Histopathology | Year: 2016

Aims: Endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESSs) are divided into low-grade and high-grade subtypes, with the latter showing more aggressive clinical behaviour. Although histology and immunophenotype can aid in the diagnosis of these tumours, genetic studies can provide additional diagnostic insights, as low-grade ESSs frequently harbour fusions involving JAZF1/SUZ12 and/or JAZF1/PHF1, whereas high-grade ESSs are defined by YWHAE-NUTM2A/B fusions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based assay in identifying ESS fusions in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour samples. Methods and results: We applied an NGS-based fusion transcript detection assay (Archer FusionPlex Sarcoma Panel) that targets YWHAE and JAZF1 fusions in a series of low-grade ESSs (n = 11) and high-grade ESSs (n = 5) that were previously confirmed to harbour genetic rearrangements by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and/or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses. The fusion assay identified junctional fusion transcript sequences that corresponded to the known FISH/RT-PCR results in all cases. Four low-grade ESSs harboured JAZF1-PHF1 fusions with different junctional sequences, and all were correctly identified because of the open-ended nature of the assay design, using anchored multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Seven non-ESS sarcomas were also included as negative controls, and no strong ESS fusion candidates were identified in these cases. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate good sensitivity and specificity of an NGS-based gene fusion assay in the detection of ESS fusion transcripts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

PubMed | LLC Boulder
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP | Year: 2012

S-nitrosoglutathione reductase is the primary enzyme responsible for the metabolism of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), the bodys main source of bioavailable nitric oxide. Through its catabolic activity, GSNO reductase (GSNOR) plays a central role in regulating endogenous S-nitrosothiol levels and protein S-nitrosation-based signaling. By inhibiting GSNOR, we aim to increase pulmonary GSNO and induce bronchodilation while reducing inflammation in lung diseases such as asthma. To support the clinical development of N6022, a first-in-class GSNOR inhibitor, a 14-day toxicology study was conducted. Sprague-Dawley rats were given 2, 10 or 50 mg/kg/day N6022 via IV administration. N6022 was well tolerated at all doses and no biologically significant adverse findings were noted in the study up to 10 mg/kg/day. N6022-related study findings were limited to the high dose group. One male rat had mild hepatocellular necrosis with accompanying increases in ALT and AST and several male animals had histological lung assessments with a slight increase in foreign body granulomas. Systemic exposure was greater in males than females and saturation of plasma clearance was observed in both sexes in the high dose group. Liver was identified as the major organ of elimination. Mechanistic studies showed dose-dependent effects on the integrity of a rat hepatoma cell line.

News Article | December 23, 2016
Site: www.businesswire.com

WASHINGTON--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Arlington Capital Partners (“Arlington Capital”), a Washington, DC-based private equity firm, today announced the acquisition of Molecular Products Group, Ltd. (“Molecular Products” or the “Company”). Headquartered in Harlow, Essex, U.K., Molecular Products is a leading manufacturer of advanced chemistry-based products serving the healthcare, defense and industrial markets. The Company primarily specializes in the manufacture and supply of chemical technologies for the treatment of breathable gases and is able to serve its global customer base out of its two primary manufacturing facilities in Harlow, Essex, U.K. and Boulder, CO. Peter Manos, a Managing Partner at Arlington Capital, said, “We are excited to be partnering with CEO Troy Rhudy and his management team at Molecular Products to expand the Company’s unique position in the development of advanced chemistry-based applications for the healthcare and defense markets, which are key verticals for Arlington. Molecular Products continues Arlington’s long track record of investing in industry leading companies with technically differentiated and proven products in the market.” Troy Rhudy, CEO of Molecular Products, stated, “Arlington Capital and Molecular Products have a shared vision to build upon the Company’s reputation as a world-class specialty chemical manufacturing Company and we are looking forward to a period of transformational growth both through strategic acquisitions and organic growth.” Chris Stallmann, a Vice President at Arlington Capital, said, “We look forward to supporting the Company’s continued expansion of their specialty chemical manufacturing capabilities and bringing to market its robust pipeline of technologically differentiated and innovative next generation air purification products.” Molecular Products specializes in the manufacture and distribution of chemical technology for the purification of air to preserve life and protect the environment. Founded in 1924, it is a global leader in its field, offering a complete product solution for the removal of carbon dioxide, the generation of oxygen and filtration of hazardous or harmful emissions. Molecular Products has over 130 employees with manufacturing operations in Harlow, Essex, U.K. and Boulder CO, and distribution offices in Australia, China and India. Arlington Capital Partners is a Washington, D.C.-area private equity firm that has managed $2.2 billion of committed capital via four investment funds, including Arlington's fourth and most recent $700 million fund. Arlington is focused on middle market investment opportunities in growth industries including: aerospace/defense, healthcare, government services and technology and business services and software. The firm's professionals and network have a unique combination of operating and private equity experience that enables Arlington to be a value-added investor. Arlington invests in companies in partnership with high quality management teams that are motivated to establish and/or advance their company's position as leading competitors in their field. www.arlingtoncap.com

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