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Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are an extremely vocal mammalian species and vocal communication plays an important role in mediating social interactions. Very little is known about how wild bottlenose dolphins use whistles in different contexts and no data exist for context specificity of whistle characteristics. This study describes, for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea, the whistle characteristics of bottlenose dolphins in their natural repertoire. Over 35. h of behavioural observations and simultaneous recordings, 3032 tonal, frequency modulated whistles were detected. Our findings further support, for the first time in wild bottlenose dolphins, the suggestion that acoustic features may be good predictors of behavioural state and vice versa. These results advocate that these parameters may be used to communicate specific information on the behavioural context of the individuals involved. Additionally, visual inspection reveals that upsweeps and multi-looped whistles play an important role in the natural communication system of bottlenose dolphins. Likewise, this study demonstrates how dynamic bottlenose dolphin whistle characteristics are and how important it is to consider many factors in analysis. High intra-specific variability in whistle characteristics demonstrates its integral role in the complex social lives of wild bottlenose dolphins. © 2010 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Säugetierkunde.


Owing to the worldwide growth of aquaculture over the last years, new habitats have been created through the supplement of nutrients. This addition of nutrients affects the whole marine food web, resulting in predator species such as bottlenose dolphins becoming attracted to these areas. During this 5-year-long study that was carried out along the north-eastern coast of Sardinia (Italy), bottlenose dolphin's history of exposure to aquaculture perturbations and their effects was documented. The interaction with a fish farm was assessed by studying the site fidelity, group dynamics, and seasonal and yearly occurrence. In all, 1,838 hours were spent in the field. Behavioural observations showed that the predominant activity (89 % of the time) in the fish farm was foraging (predation and depredation). The occurrence of bottlenose dolphins appeared to be related with the seasons and with the fish farm harvesting operations. Thus, the peak dolphin occurrence in the fish farm area throughout Fall coincides with the period in which they spend most of their time foraging. A relatively small community remained resident interacting with the fish farm over a long period of time. Hence, these individuals gained intimate knowledge on how to capitalize on the fish farm industry. This heterogeneity in site fidelity and residence patterns is highly relevant when coastal management initiatives are considered. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


A system and a method for trending of aggregated personalized information streams and multi-dimensional graphical depiction thereof are disclosed. The method, which may be embodied on a system, includes retrieving a plurality of social media objects that relates to a focused social media object from social media sites; determining relationships between the social media objects; and/or presenting, at a graphic interface, a network diagram including nodes and lines. In one embodiment, each individual node of the nodes represents one of the social media objects. Each individual line of the lines represents one of the relationships between two of the social media objects that are represented by two of the nodes being connected by the individual line.


Systems and methods for presenting a graphical visualization of user related content in a network or across networks are disclosed. In one aspect, embodiments of the present disclosure include analyzing the content from within the network or across the networks, identifying trending topics, and customizing the graphical visualization based on a given topic. The given topic can be user specified and/or can be based on implicit and/or explicit user interests or preferences. The given topic can also be administrator specified. The graphical visualization can present the topics as being connected to the given topic, where the given topic is presented as a center node and the topics relating to that given topic are arranged radially from the center node. The trending topics can change based on a configurable timeframe (e.g., minutes, days, weeks, etc.).


A system and a method for microcontent natural language processing are presented. The method comprising steps of receiving a microcontent message from a social networking server, tokenizing the microcontent message into one or more text tokens, performing a topic extraction on the microcontent message to extract topic metadata, generating sentiment metadata for the microcontent message, analyzing co-occurrence of all available metadatas in the plurality of microcontent messages, producing a list that ranks the plurality of microcontent messages based on all available topic metadata, and compiling a trend database that reveals how perception of users of the social networking server on a given topic changes by tracking how the list changes over time.

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