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Rashid A.,Georgetown University | Karam S.D.,Georgetown University | Rashid B.,Georgetown University | Kim J.H.,Georgetown University | And 4 more authors.
Seminars in Radiation Oncology | Year: 2016

Clinically relevant dose-tolerance limits with reliable estimates of risk in 1-5 fractions for cochlea are still unknown. Timmerman's limits from the October 2008 issue of Seminars in Radiation Oncology have served as the basis for clinical practice, augmented by updated constraints in TG-101 and QUANTEC, but the corresponding estimates of risk have not yet been well-reported. A total of 37 acoustic neuroma CyberKnife cases from Medstar Georgetown University Hospital treated in 3 or 5 fractions were combined with single-fraction Gamma Knife data from the 69 cases in Timmer 2009 to form an aggregate dataset of 106 cochlea cases treated in 1-5 fractions. Probit dose-response modeling was performed in the DVH Evaluator software to estimate normal tissue complication probability. QUANTEC recommends keeping single-fraction maximum dose to the cochlea less than 14 Gy to maintain less than 25% risk of serviceable hearing loss, and our 17.9% risk estimate for 14 Gy in 1 fraction is within their predicted range. In 5 fractions, our estimate of the Timmerman 27.5 Gy maximum cochlea dose limit was 17.4%. For cases in which lower risk is required, the Timmerman 12 Gy in 1 fraction and the TG-101 limit of 25 Gy in 5 fractions had an estimated risk level of 11.8% and 13.8%, respectively. High-risk and low-risk dose tolerance with risk estimates in 1-5 fractions are all presented. © 2016.

Asbell S.O.,Anderson at Cooper University Hospital | Grimm J.,Bott Cancer Center | Xue J.,Anderson at Cooper University Hospital | Chew M.-S.,Lehigh University | LaCouture T.A.,Anderson at Cooper University Hospital
Seminars in Radiation Oncology | Year: 2016

Radiation oncologists need reliable estimates of risk for various fractionation schemes for all critical anatomical structures throughout the body, in a clinically convenient format. Reliable estimation theory can become fairly complex, however, and estimates of risk continue to evolve as the literature matures. To navigate through this efficiently, a dose-volume histogram (DVH) Risk Map was created, which provides a comparison of radiation tolerance limits as a function of dose, fractionation, volume, and risk level. The graphical portion of the DVH Risk Map helps clinicians to easily visualize the trends, whereas the tabular portion provides quantitative precision for clinical implementation. The DVH Risk Map for rib tolerance from stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is used as an example in this overview; the 5% and 50% risk levels for 1-5 fractions for 5 different volumes are given. Other articles throughout this issue of Seminars in Radiation Oncology present analysis of new clinical datasets including the DVH Risk Maps for other anatomical structures throughout the body. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Grimm J.,Bott Cancer Center | Sahgal A.,University of Toronto | Soltys S.G.,Stanford University | Luxton G.,Stanford University | And 7 more authors.
Seminars in Radiation Oncology | Year: 2016

A literature review of more than 200 stereotactic body radiation therapy spine articles from the past 20 years found only a single article that provided dose-volume data and outcomes for each spinal cord of a clinical dataset: the Gibbs 2007 article (Gibbs et al, 20071), which essentially contains the first 100 stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) spine treatments from Stanford University Medical Center. The dataset is modeled and compared in detail to the rest of the literature review, which found 59 dose tolerance limits for the spinal cord in 1-5 fractions. We partitioned these limits into a unified format of high-risk and low-risk dose tolerance limits. To estimate the corresponding risk level of each limit we used the Gibbs 2007 clinical spinal cord dose-volume data for 102 spinal metastases in 74 patients treated by spinal radiosurgery. In all, 50 of the patients were previously irradiated to a median dose of 40 Gy in 2-3 Gy fractions and 3 patients developed treatment-related myelopathy. These dose-volume data were digitized into the dose-volume histogram (DVH) Evaluator software tool where parameters of the probit dose-response model were fitted using the maximum likelihood approach (Jackson et al, 19953). Based on this limited dataset, for de novo cases the unified low-risk dose tolerance limits yielded an estimated risk of spinal cord injury of ≤1% in 1-5 fractions, and the high-risk limits yielded an estimated risk of ≤3%. The QUANTEC Dmax limits of 13 Gy in a single fraction and 20 Gy in 3 fractions had less than 1% risk estimated from this dataset, so we consider these among the low-risk limits. In the previously irradiated cohort, the estimated risk levels for 10 and 14 Gy maximum cord dose limits in 5 fractions are 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively. Longer follow-up and more patients are required to improve the risk estimates and provide more complete validation. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Blanck O.,University of Kiel | Blanck O.,Saphir Radiosurgery Center | Wang L.,Stanford University | Baus W.,University of Cologne | And 23 more authors.
Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics | Year: 2016

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is the accurate, conformal delivery of high-dose radiation to well-defined targets while minimizing normal structure doses via steep dose gradients. While inverse treatment planning (ITP) with computerized optimization algorithms are routine, many aspects of the planning process remain user-dependent. We performed an international, multi-institutional benchmark trial to study planning variability and to analyze preferable ITP practice for spinal robotic radiosurgery. 10 SRS treatment plans were generated for a complex-shaped spinal metastasis with 21 Gy in 3 fractions and tight constraints for spinal cord (V14Gy < 2 cc, V18Gy < 0.1 cc) and target (coverage > 95%). The resulting plans were rated on a scale from 1 to 4 (excellent-poor) in five categories (constraint compliance, optimization goals, low-dose regions, ITP complexity, and clinical acceptability) by a blinded review panel. Additionally, the plans were mathematically rated based on plan indices (critical structure and target doses, conformity, monitor units, normal tissue complication probability, and treatment time) and compared to the human rankings. The treatment plans and the reviewers' rankings varied substantially among the participating centers. The average mean overall rank was 2.4 (1.2-4.0) and 8/10 plans were rated excellent in at least one category by at least one reviewer. The mathematical rankings agreed with the mean overall human quality comparison. The final rankings revealed that a plan with a well-balanced trade-off among all planning objectives was preferred for treatment by most participants, reviewers, and the mathematical ranking system. Furthermore, this plan was generated with simple planning techniques. Our multi-institutional planning study found wide variability in ITP approaches for spinal robotic radiosurgery. The participants', reviewers', and mathematical match on preferable treatment plans and ITP techniques indicate that agreement on treatment planning and plan quality can be reached for spinal robotic radiosurgery.

Xu Q.,Anderson Cancer Center at Cooper | Hanna G.,Anderson Cancer Center at Cooper | Grimm J.,Bott Cancer Center | Kubicek G.,Anderson Cancer Center at Cooper | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2014

Purpose To quantify rigid and nonrigid motion of liver tumors using reconstructed 3-dimensional (3D) fiducials from stereo imaging during CyberKnife-based stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials Twenty-three liver patients treated with 3 fractions of SBRT were used in this study. After 2 orthogonal kilovoltage images were taken during treatment, the 3D locations of the fiducials were generated by the CyberKnife system and validated using geometric derivations. A total of 4824 pairs of kilovoltage images from start to end of treatment were analyzed. For rigid motion, the rotational angles and translational shifts were reported by aligning 3D fiducial groups from different image pairs, using least-squares fitting. For nonrigid motion, we quantified interfractional tumor volume variations by using the proportional volume derived from the fiducials, which correlates to the sum of interfiducial distances. The individual fiducial displacements were also reported (1) after rigid corrections and (2) without angle corrections. Results The proportional volume derived by the fiducials demonstrated a volume-increasing trend in the second (101.9% ± 3.6%) and third (101.0 ± 5.9%) fractions among most patients, possibly due to radiation-induced edema. For all patients, the translational shifts in left-right, anteroposterior, and superoinferior directions were 2.1 ± 2.3 mm, 2.9 ± 2.8 mm, and 6.4 ± 5.5 mm, respectively. The greatest translational shifts occurred in the superoinferior direction, likely due to respiratory motion from the diaphragm. The rotational angles in roll, pitch, and yaw were 1.2° ± 1.8°, 1.8° ± 2.4°, and 1.7° ± 2.1°, respectively. The 3D individual fiducial displacements with rigid corrections were 0.2 ± 0.2 mm and increased to 0.5 ± 0.4 mm without rotational corrections. Conclusions Accurate 3D locations of internal fiducials can be reconstructed from stereo imaging during treatment. As an effective surrogate to tumor motion, fiducials provide a close estimation of both rigid and nonrigid motion of liver tumors. The reported displacements could be further utilized for tumor margin definition and motion management in conventional linear accelerator-based liver SBRT. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

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